What is transcatheter repair of a ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Transcatheter repair of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) (ventricular septal defect) via catheter is a type of heart procedure. It repairs a hole between the right and left ventricles of the heart, without making an incision in the chest wall
Includes the heart It has 4 chambers: 2 upper (atria) and 2 lower (ventricles). Blood that is high in oxygen flows from the left atrium to the left ventricle and out to the body, where the oxygen is used by vital organs.
Blood with less oxygen flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle and out to the lungs.
There, it picks up more oxygen.
Normally, there is a wall between the right and left atria and between the right and left ventricles.
A child with a VSD has a hole in the wall between the right and left ventricles. The hole causes blood to flow abnormally from the left ventricle into the right ventricle.
As a result, a lot of blood can go to the lungs.
Transcatheter repair of a ventricular septal defect (VSD) uses a flexible tube called a catheter.
This tube contains a small device, often in the form of an umbrella.
The doctor inserts the tube through the femoral artery into the heart, into the wall between the ventricles.
He releases the small device and uses it to plug the hole in the wall. Then the tube is removed from the body
Why might your child need to have a ventricular septal defect (VSD) repaired via catheter?
The purpose of this procedure is to relieve symptoms caused by a VSD and prevent future symptoms.
No one knows what causes most cases of this common heart defect.
Not everyone with a VSD needs to have the hole repaired.
Very small holes in the ventricular septum may not allow as much blood to pass between the ventricles.
In these cases, the heart and lungs don't have to work as hard.
So the VSD then does not need to be repaired.
These small holes do not cause any symptoms.
Sometimes these small holes will close on their own naturally. The cardiologist may wait a while to see if the holes grow larger before planning a repair, especially in very young children.
If your child has a ventricular septal defect, he may need some type of repair.
Infants and children with larger ventricular septal defects often have symptoms such as breathing faster and harder than usual.
They may also fail to gain weight normally. A large unrepaired ventricular septal defect can cause high pressure in the blood vessels in the lungs.
This higher pressure can lead to lower levels of oxygen in the body.
Cardiologists often recommend some type of . fix For children with a large ventricular septal defect, even if they have not yet developed symptoms, to prevent long-term lung damage,
Cardiologists often perform this procedure in infants or children.
Sometimes adults may also need this type of repair if a ventricular septal defect is not found during childhood.
Currently, the standard treatment for VSD repair is open heart surgery, not cardiac catheter repair.
This type of open heart surgery requires a heart-lung pump.
But your child's cardiologist may suggest ventricular septal repair (VSD) via catheterization.
Catheter repair usually results in less recovery time.
But it may have a higher rate of complications.
Ask your child's doctor about Pros and cons of catheter repair or make another repair.
Some reasons to consider catheter septal closure may be that particular defects are technically challenging to close with surgery or for people who are unable to use a heart-lung machine for various reasons.
What are the risks of transcatheter ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair for a child?
Most children do well with ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair via catheterization. But complications sometimes develop. Specific risk factors may vary based on age, size of the defect, and other health problems. Possible risks include:
- excessive bleeding
- Blood clot, which can lead to stroke or other problems.
- Irregular heartbeat, which can lead to death in rare cases
- Heart block, which can make it necessary to regulate the heartbeat
- pooling of blood (hematoma) in the groin
- Movement of the device through the heart or vessels (embolization)
- Heart valve problems
- Anesthesia complications
In rare cases, the device used to repair the defect may become loose. This will require another procedure. Ask your child's health care provider about specific risk factors for your child.
How do I help my child prepare for repair
Ventricular septal defect (VSD), via catheterization?
Ask your child's health care provider how to help your child prepare for surgical repair. Your child should not eat or drink anything after midnight before the day of the procedure. Your child may also need to stop taking any medication before the procedure.
Your child's health care provider may want to do some additional tests before the procedure. These may include:
- chest x-ray
- Electrocardiogram, to look at the heart rhythm
- Blood tests to check general health
- Echocardiogram (echocardiogram), to look at the heart's anatomy and blood flow through the heart
What happens during transcatheter ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair for a child?
Talk with your child's health care provider about what to expect during the procedure. generally:
- Your child will be sedated before the procedure begins. This is usually done through intravenous medication. Your child will sleep deeply and painlessly during the procedure. And he won't remember it anymore.
- The repair will take about two hours.
- The health care provider inserts a small, flexible tube (catheter) into several blood vessels in the groin. The catheter will have a small device inside.
- The doctor inserts the catheter through the blood vessels to the ventricular septal defect.
- X-ray images and an echocardiogram will be used to find out exactly where the catheter is located.
Sometimes a transesophageal echocardiogram (echocardiogram) may be used, with an ultrasound camera inserted into your child's throat.
- The doctor pushes a small device (valve) out of the tube and blocks the opening in the wall between the ventricles. It secures the device in place.
- Once the procedure is complete, the catheter will be removed through the blood vessel.
- The doctor will close the site where the tube was inserted.
What happens after a ventricular septal defect (VSD) is repaired via catheterization in a child?
Ask your child's doctor what will happen after a ventricular septal defect (VSD) catheter repair. After the procedure in the hospital, you can generally expect the following:
- Your child will spend several hours in the recovery room.
- Medical staff will closely monitor your child's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels and breathing.
- Your child may need to lie flat for several hours after the procedure without bending his legs. It will help prevent bleeding.
- Your child's health care provider may give your child medication to prevent blood clots.
- Your child will have pain medication if needed.
- Your child's cardiologist may order follow-up tests, such as an electrocardiogram or echocardiogram.
- Your child will likely need to stay in the hospital for at least a day.
Follow-up at home after the operation:
- Ask what medications your child needs.
Your child may temporarily need to take antibiotics or medications to prevent blood clots.
Give sedatives as needed.
- Make your child avoid strenuous activities.
Encourage him to rest.
- If your child has stitches, they will be removed at a follow-up appointment.
Be sure to keep all follow-up appointments.
- Call the doctor if your child has increased swelling, increased bleeding, oozing from a bruise, fever, or severe symptoms.
A little oozing from the wound site is normal.
- Follow all of the instructions your child's health care provider gives you about medicine, exercise, diet, and wound care.
- For a period of time after the procedure, your child may also need antibiotics before certain medical and dental procedures.
It can help prevent infection of the heart valves.
For a short time after the procedure, your child will need regular checkups by a cardiologist. After that, your child will only need to see a cardiologist every now and then.
After recovering from the procedure, most children are able to lead a normal life without any restrictions on their daily activities.
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Do ventricular septal holes go away spontaneously?
In most children, the small defects close on their own without surgery. Some of them may not close, but they do not increase in size.
When can a VSD be detected?
Ventricular septal defects can be diagnosed as early as 12 weeks of pregnancy, but sometimes they aren't noticed until after delivery.