Open-heart surgery is one of the leading operations in the field of medicine to correct an error or damage to the heart or its arteries. You can now perform this operation in Turkey by the most skilled specialist doctors.
Overview of open heart surgery
Open heart surgery is surgery performed on the muscles, valves, or arteries of the heart.
The term “open heart surgery” means that the patient is placed on a device called a heart-lung bypass machine during the operation.
The heart is stopped and the patient is connected to this device, which plays the role of the heart and lung in pumping blood, providing it with oxygen and purifying it from carbon dioxide throughout the surgery period.
Open heart surgeries are very common, they have been performed millions of times around the world, and the death rate within 30 days after the operation does not exceed 5%.
has shown study The mortality rate resulting from this process is estimated at about 2.6% in patients with low risk, and most of these deaths can be avoided.
The results also showed that the survival rate after open heart operations is estimated at 90% after 5 years and 74% after 10 years, which is a high percentage.
Types of open heart surgery
There are many operations that require opening the chest and directly accessing the heart and surrounding blood vessels.
Here are some of the operations that can be performed during open heart surgery:
- coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) forCoronary artery disease treatment (the most common reason)
- repair or Heart valve replacement For the treatment of valvular heart disease
- Treatment of damaged or abnormal parts of the heart
- Implantation of medical devices that help maintain a regular heartbeat
- Heart transplantation For the treatment of patients with heart failure
- Aneurysm repair (aneurysm)
- Congenital heart defect repairTetralogy of Fallot
Sometimes during open-heart surgery, surgeons place line or pacemakers Defibrillators Implantable ICDs or ablation to treat cardiac arrhythmias.
How to perform open heart surgery
There are two ways to perform open heart surgeries in Turkey as described inthe video:
Open heart surgery using a pump
It is also called a traditional heart operation, in which the heart is connected to the cardiopulmonary bypass device, which plays the role of the heart and lungs in maintaining blood circulation, then the heart in which the pulse has stopped is separated and the operation is performed on the heart or coronary arteries, and after surgery, the surgeon separates the device from the heart And the heart begins to beat again.
Open heart surgery without a pump
In which the heart continues to beat without the cardiopulmonary bypass device during the surgery period, as there are new techniques that allow fixing part of the heart instead of stopping it completely, this method only works on Coronary artery bypass surgery without a pumpIt is used for patients who suffer from complications that prevent them from using the cardiopulmonary bypass machine to perform this operation.
Open heart surgery risks
The risks of complications from open heart surgery will increase if the patient suffers from other health problems such as diabetes, obesity, or lung problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The following are some of the complications of open heart surgery:
- Allergic reaction to the drug
- cardiac arrhythmias (Arrhythmia)
- Damage to blood vessels or nearby organs such as the lung or heart
- acute renal failure
- Formation of blood clots
- Operation site infection
- brain attack
- Memory loss (more common in patients over 65 years of age)
- Donor heart failure (if the patient has had a heart transplant)
- Death (especially in high-risk patients before the procedure)
Preparations before open heart surgery
Before performing open heart surgery, the patient must follow the doctor’s instructions to reduce the risks of the operation as much as possible:
- Stop smoking and alcohol consumption as soon as possible
- Tell the doctor about all the medications he takes, the doctor will stop some medications before the operation, such as blood thinners
- Start using a special anti-bacterial soap a few days before the operation
- Avoid chewing, eating or drinking anything after midnight before the operation
Upon coming to the hospital, the patient will perform some routine examinations, such as a simple chest X-ray and electrocardiogram, in addition to blood tests.
Before starting the operation, the patient’s chest will be shaved, the surgical area will be sterilized with a special soap that kills bacteria, and an intravenous line will be provided to give fluids and medicines to the patient during the operation.
How to perform open heart surgery
The open heart operation is a complex operation that takes about 3-6 hours by a specialized cardiac surgery team, in which the patient is placed under general anesthesia to ensure that he does not feel pain and remains asleep throughout the operation.
The surgeon makes an 8-10 inch (20-25 cm) midline incision in the chest through all or part of the sternum until the heart is exposed.
When the heart becomes visible, it is connected to the cardiopulmonary bypass machine, and the anesthesiologist gives the patient a drug intravenously to stop the heartbeat (some operations do not require this as mentioned).
The surgeon performs the required operation on the heart muscle, one of its valves, coronary arteries, or aorta.
Then the surgeon disconnects the patient from the device to allow the flow to return through the heart, so the pulse returns automatically or with a simple electric shock.
After the pulse returns, the sternum is sutured with small wires and the incision closed.
After open heart surgery
After the surgery is performed in the hospital in Turkey, the patient will be transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) to stay there for a day or more, depending on the reason for the operation, and then he will be transferred to a normal room in the hospital to stay there for several days.
The patient will be placed on a device to monitor the pulse, pressure, breathing and other vital signs.
Endotracheal intubation is also performed to help the patient breathe after the operation until he is able to breathe on his own a few hours after the operation.
Tips after open heart surgery
Taking care of the patient's health at home immediately after the operation is essential for recovery.
The patient should keep the wound warm and dry and wash his hands before and after touching the wound. If the wound is in good condition, you can take a shower with warm water for a period not exceeding ten minutes without splashing the water hard on the wound.
Signs of wound infection include oozing or leakage from the wound, redness around the wound, localized hyperthermia, and fever.
It is also important for the patient to take pain relievers as prescribed by the doctor in order to recover faster and reduce the risk of complications such as clot formation or pneumonia.
The patient may have difficulties sleeping after the open-heart surgery, but it is necessary that he gets enough rest and return to the regular sleep he had before the operation as much as possible.
The patient can also benefit from the cardiac rehabilitation program to help restore strength and endurance and improve heart health in general, and this is done by attending several sessions per week that include performing exercises, reducing risk factors and dealing with stress, anxiety and depression.
After an open-heart surgery for a coronary artery patient, it must be known that the operation does not prevent coronary arteries from blocking again, and it is important for these patients to take care of their health through:
- Maintain a healthy diet
- Refrain from eating foods rich in salt, fat, or sugar
- Exercise regularly and start a more active and energetic lifestyle
- stop smoking
- Always maintain blood pressure and cholesterol within normal limits
The patient should contact his doctor directly if he encounters any of the following problems:
- Chest pain (not just discomfort at the incision site)
- Nausea or vomiting
- Shortness of breath
- One of the signs of infection of the operation wound
Long-term results of open heart surgery in Turkey
Healing will be gradual and the recovery period varies depending on the reason for the operation, complications after the operation, and the patient’s general health condition before the operation.
It will take up to six weeks to feel better and six months to feel the desired result from the operation.
The surgeon will determine when the patient will return to work and start performing various activities. Usually, you should not drive a car or carry anything heavy for the first six weeks after the operation.
The outward appearance will be fine for most people and the passes used can work for several years.
Some people may need to take blood thinners after open-heart surgery to prevent blood clots from forming.
Why should I choose treatment in Turkey?
The reason for this is due to the presence of advanced medical centers that provide appropriate treatment by the most skilled doctors and the latest medical devices at a low cost.
Frequently asked questions about open heart surgery
Is open heart operation cause death?
Mortality rate within 30 days after open heart surgery does not exceed 5%.
How long does a person live after open heart surgery?
The survival rate after open-heart surgery is estimated to be 90% after 5 years and 74% after 10 years.
How long does open heart surgery take in Turkey?
Open heart surgery is a complex procedure and takes about 3-6 hours.
What is the shape of the open heart operation wound?
The shape of the open heart surgery wound is a straight sagittal line to the midline in the middle of the chest, 8-10 inches (25-20 cm) long.