What you want to know about peripheral arterial catheterization in Turkey

What you need to know about peripheral arterial catheterization?

Peripheral vascular angioplasty is a procedure to treat peripheral artery disease in the legs.

Procedure overview

The procedure widens narrowed, hardened blood vessels in the pelvis or legs. Peripheral arterial catheterization can help blood flow better. This may reduce leg pain or help wounds heal better in people with diabetes.

Peripheral arteries can be narrowed due to a substance called plaque. Plaque is an accumulation of fat in the arteries, occurring in the peripheral arteries and also the supply of the heart.

When the atherosclerotic plate is formed due to the accumulation of fat, the artery narrows and its efficiency in transporting red blood cells loaded with oxygen decreases.
Picture of a narrowed artery due to atherosclerotic plaque formation

You will be awake for this procedure. You will be given medication that prevents pain and helps you relax. First, your doctor will do a test to find narrowed peripheral arteries. He or she will place a small tube in an artery in your thigh or leg. This tube is called a catheter. The doctor moves the catheter through the artery and puts a dye in it. The dye makes the arteries visible on X-ray images. This allows the doctor to see any narrowed sections or blockages in the peripheral arteries.

If your doctor finds peripheral arterial narrowing or blockage, he or she may perform an angioplasty. To do this, the doctor uses a catheter with a balloon at its tip. It goes into an artery in the groin or leg. He moves the balloon to the narrowed area and inflates it. The balloon presses the plaque against the artery walls. This provides more space for blood to flow. The doctor may also place a stent through the catheter in the artery, stent. A stent is a small tube that helps keep an artery open. It can also be a treatment that prevents small pieces of plaque from breaking down and causing vascular disease and blockage of the peripheral leg arteries.

After angioplasty, you may need to spend the night in the hospital. For a day or two after the operation, you will need to relax at home.

Peripheral arterial catheterization is performed by delivering a stent to the narrowed artery with a catheter, then expanding it with a balloon and then fixing it to the stent
An image showing the method of installing the mesh (stent) in the peripheral arteries in Turkey

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Peripheral catheter indications

This procedure is commonly used to open narrowed arteries that supply blood flow to the heart (Cardiac catheterization) . It may be used on short sections of narrowed peripheral arteries in people with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) due to atherosclerosis.

Why is the procedure (peripheral arterial angioplasty) performed?

Symptoms of leg arteries from atherosclerosis are pain, soreness or heaviness in your leg that begins or gets worse when you walk.

You may not need a peripheral catheter for peripheral arterial disease if you can still do most of your daily activities. Your health care provider may ask you to try medications and other treatments first that may help treat peripheral vascular disease and peripheral arterial disease before an angioplasty is needed.

The reasons for performing such surgery in peripheral arterial disease are:

  • You have symptoms that prevent you from doing daily tasks. Your symptoms do not improve with other medical treatments.
  • You have skin sores or cuts in your leg or foot that are not getting better.
  • You have an infection or gangrene in your leg due to atherosclerosis and reduced blood flow to the extremities.
  • You have leg pain caused by narrowed and blocked peripheral arteries, even while at rest.

Before having an angioplasty (peripheral arterial catheterization) in peripheral arterial disease, you will undergo special tests to see the extent of blockage in the peripheral blood vessels

Description of peripheral arterial catheterization

Peripheral vascular angioplasty uses a medical "balloon" to widen clogged peripheral arteries affected by atherosclerosis. The balloon presses on the inner wall of the artery to open up atherosclerosis and improve blood flow. A metal stent is often placed through the catheter through the artery wall to prevent the peripheral arteries from narrowing again.

To treat blockage of the peripheral arteries in your leg, peripheral arterial catheterization may be performed in the following:

  • The aorta (the main artery that comes from the heart)
  • An artery in the hip or pelvis
  • Arterial insufficiency in your thigh
  • artery behind your knee
  • The peripheral arteries are in your lower leg

    See your doctor if you have pain or heaviness in your legs that starts when you walk. You may have peripheral arterial disease
    Picture of a patient suffering from heaviness in the legs due to peripheral arterial disease in the legs

Peripheral arterial catheterization helps blood flow better. This may reduce leg pain or help wounds heal better.

What to expect during an arterial and peripheral vascular angioplasty

  • You will be given medicine to help you relax. You will be awake but drowsy.
  • You may also be given an anticoagulant medication to prevent blood clots from forming.
  • You will lie on your back on a padded operating table. The surgeon will inject some numbing medicine into the area to be treated so that you do not feel pain. This is called local anesthesia.

He will then place a fine needle into the peripheral blood vessels in the groin. A small flexible wire will be inserted through this needle into the peripheral arteries affected by atherosclerosis

  • The catheter surgeon will be able to see the artery using live X-ray images. A dye will be injected into your body to show blood flow through your peripheral arteries. The dye will make it easier to see the area of the blockage of the peripheral arteries (arteriography).
  • The surgeon will insert a catheter through the artery to the area of the peripheral artery blockage.
  • Next, the surgeon will pass a guide wire through the interventional catheter to the area of the peripheral arterial occlusion.
  • The surgeon will push another catheter with a very small balloon at its end over the guide wire and into the blocked area of the peripheral arteries.
  • The catheter balloon is then filled with contrast fluid to inflate the balloon. This opens blocked blood vessels and arteries and restores blood flow to the heart.

A stent may also be placed in the blocked area. The stent is inserted at the same time as the balloon catheter. It expands when the balloon bursts. The stent is left in place to help keep the artery open. Then the balloon and all catheter wires are removed

before the procedure

During the two weeks before surgery:

  • Tell your provider what medications you are taking, even prescription drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription.
  • Tell your provider if you are allergic to seafood, if you have had a bad reaction to contrast material (dye) or iodine in the past, or if you are or might be pregnant.
  • Tell your provider if you are taking sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), or tadalafil (Cialis).
  • Tell your provider if you drink a lot of alcohol (more than one or two drinks per day).
  • You may need to stop taking medications that make it more difficult for blood to clot two weeks before surgery. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), clopidogrel (Plavix), naprosyn (Aleve, naproxen), and other such medications.
  • Ask what medications you should take on the day of your surgery.
  • If you smoke, you should stop. Ask your provider for help.
  • Always tell your provider about any cold, flu, fever, herpes, or other illness you may have before surgery.

Do not drink anything after midnight the night before surgery, including water.

On the day of surgery

  • Take the medicines your provider told you to take with a small sip of water.
  • You will be told when to arrive at the hospital.

After the operation

After the procedure, the area where the catheter was placed will be pressed into the blood vessel. Then the area may be covered with a bandage or compression device. This will prevent bleeding. The nurses will check your heart rate and blood pressure. The nurse will also check the catheter site for bleeding.

You will need to lie down and keep your leg straight for several hours. The nurse may place a heavy bag over your leg to keep it still.

Many people are able to go home from the hospital in two days or less. Some people may not even have to stay overnight. You should be able to walk around within 6 to 8 hours after the procedure. You may have a bruise or a small lump where the catheter was placed in a blood vessel. This is normal and will go away.

Your provider will explain to you how to take care of yourself.

How effective is the procedure?

Peripheral vascular angioplasty can help restore blood flow and relieve intermittent claudication.

How well the catheter works depends on the size of the blood vessel, the length of the affected blood vessel, and whether the blood vessel is completely blocked.

In general, catheters work best in:

  • The great arteries.
  • Arteries with short narrow spaces.
  • Narrow and unobstructed arteries.

Risks

the Complications Related to catheters include:

  • Pain, swelling and tenderness at the catheter insertion site.
  • Irritation of the vein with the catheter (superficial thrombophlebitis).
  • Bleeding at the catheter site.
  • A bruise where the catheter was inserted. This usually goes away within a few days.

Serious complications rarely occur. These complications may include:

  • Sudden closure of the artery.
  • blood clots;
  • A small tear in the inner lining of the artery.
  • Allergic reaction to the contrast material used to examine the arteries.
  • kidney damage; In rare cases, the contrast material can cause kidney damage, which can lead to kidney failure.

Radiation hazards

There is always a slight risk of damage to cells or tissues from exposure to any radiation, including the low levels of X-rays used in this test. But the risk of damage from X-rays is usually very low compared to the potential benefits of the test.

Common Questions

Treatment cost ranges from USD 1500 to USD 4500. It may vary depending on various factors such as the cost of the stent (if used)

Many people are able to go home from the hospital in two days or less.

Most of the time, there are no complications, but bleeding, infection, or persistent blockage of the artery may occur after placing the stent.

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