Abdominal hernias occur in the abdominal wall. Where symptoms include pain and flatulence in the abdomen, abdominal hernias in Turkey are treated with surgery, including open, laparoscopic or robotic surgery.
What is abdominal hernia abdominal hernia ?
A hernia occurs when there is a hole in the muscles of the abdominal wall, allowing a ring of intestinal or abdominal tissue to be pushed through the muscle layer.
An abdominal hernia is a hernia that occurs anywhere along the midline (vertical center) of the abdominal wall and can also form in other places.
There are three types of abdominal hernias:
Type I: epigastric hernia (stomach area):
It occurs anywhere from just below the sternum to the umbilicus (umbilicus). This type of hernia appears in both men and women.
Type II: umbilical hernia:
It occurs in the navel area.
The third type: incisional hernia:
It develops at the site of previous surgery.
About a third of patients who have abdominal surgery will develop an incisional hernia at the site of their scar.
This type of hernia can occur anytime from several months to years after abdominal surgery.
Abdominal hernia symptoms and causes
What are the causes and risk factors for developing an abdominal hernia?
There are many reasons including:
- Weakness at the incision site of previous abdominal surgery (which may result from surgical site infection or failure of surgical repair and/or mesh placement).
- Weakness in an area of the abdominal wall that was present at birth.
- Weakness in the abdominal wall due to conditions that put pressure on the abdominal wall (similar to causes that occur in inguinal hernia). These include:
- more Weight
- frequent coughing fits
- severe vomiting
- History of lifting or pushing heavy objects
- Straining during defecation / urination
- Injuries to the intestine
- Lung disease (COPD and emphysema; difficulty breathing that strains the abdominal wall)
- prostate (enlarged prostate gland, causing straining during urination in older men)
- Age (general loss of elasticity in the abdominal wall)
What are the signs and symptoms of an abdominal hernia?
Some patients do not feel any discomfort in the early stages of the formation of an abdominal hernia.
Often the first sign is a visible bulge under the skin of the abdomen or an area sensitive to touch. The bulge may flatten when you lie down or press on it.
Abdominal hernias cause increased pain when:
- Lifting heavy objects.
- Sitting or standing for long periods of time.
Severe abdominal pain can occur if part of the intestine bulges through the abdominal wall and becomes trapped in the opening.
If this happens, the trapped part of the intestine becomes suffocated, loses its blood supply and begins to die. This is considered a medical emergency that requires immediate care.
Diagnostics and tests for abdominal hernia in Turkey
How is abdominal hernia diagnosed?
Your doctor will review your medical and surgical history. He will also perform a physical examination of the abdominal area where an abdominal hernia may occur.
Your doctor may then order imaging tests of the abdomen to look for signs of an abdominal hernia.
These tests may include an ultrasound, a computerized tomography (CT) scan, or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study.
Management and treatment in Turkey
How are abdominal hernias treated?
An abdominal hernia does not go away or improve on its own and requires surgery to repair it. In fact, without treatment, an abdominal hernia can enlarge and get worse over time.
Untreated hernias can become difficult to repair and can lead to serious complications, such as strangulation of part of the intestine.
Where it is wrong to believe that Hernia treatment without surgery.
The goal of abdominal hernia surgery is to repair the hole/defect in the abdominal wall so that the intestines and other abdominal tissues do not protrude through the wall again.
Surgery often restores the symmetry and shape of the abdominal wall by repairing the opening and returning the muscles to their normal position.
Laparoscopic abdominal hernia surgery in Turkey
What are the advantages of laparoscopy for hernia repair?
Results may vary depending on the type of procedure and the general condition of each patient. Common benefits of laparoscopic abdominal hernia treatment may include:
- Less pain after surgery
- Shortened hospital stay
- Faster return to normal diet
- Faster return to normal activity
- Less rate of wound infections
Are you a candidate for laparoscopic hernia repair?
Your surgeon can only determine if laparoscopic abdominal hernia repair is right for you after a thorough examination.
The procedure may not be best for some patients with previous extensive abdominal surgery, hernias in unusual or difficult to approach locations, or underlying medical conditions. Be sure to consult your doctor about your particular case.
What preparations are required for laparoscopic abdominal hernia repair?
- Most minor hernia operations are done on an outpatient basis, so you'll likely go home the same day or the day after your procedure.
- More complex or frequent hernia operations may require several days in the hospital after surgery.
- Preparation before surgery includes blood analysis, medical evaluation, chest x-ray and ECG depending on your age and medical condition.
- After your surgeon reviews the potential risks and benefits of the procedure with you, you'll need to provide written consent for the surgery.
- It is recommended to shower the night before or the morning of the operation.
- The surgeon asked that you completely empty your colon and cleanse your bowels prior to surgery.
Usually, you should drink a special cleaning solution. You may be asked to drink only clear fluids for one or several days before the operation.
- After midnight the night before the operation, you should not eat or drink anything except for medicines that your surgeon has told you to take with a sip of water the morning of the surgery.
- Medications such as blood thinners, anti-inflammatory drugs (arthritis medications) and vitamin E must be stopped temporarily for several days to a week before surgery.
- You should not use weight-loss drugs or St. John's wort for two weeks prior to surgery.
- It is highly recommended and sometimes requires you to stop smoking before the surgery
- Arrange for any help you might need to go home after the procedure.
How is a laparoscopy performed to repair a hernia?
There are a few options available to the ventral hernia patient.
- The use of . is sometimes described Abdominal hernia belt, but most of the time it is ineffective.
- Abdominal hernias do not go away on their own and may enlarge over time.
- Surgery is the preferred treatment and is performed in one of two ways:
- The traditional method is by making an incision in the abdominal wall. An incision is made in the skin and the fatty layer below it, in the abdomen. Your surgeon may choose to sew your normal tissues back together, but more often, this requires placing a mesh (gauze) in or on the abdominal wall to close the peritoneum.
This technique is often performed under general anesthesia but in certain cases it can be done under local anesthesia with or without spinal anesthesia. Your surgeon will help you choose the best anesthetic for you.
- The second method is laparoscopic repair of abdominal hernias.
In this approach, a laparoscope (a small telescope with a television camera) is inserted through a small opening (a small hollow tube). The laparoscope and TV camera allow the surgeon to view the hernia from the inside.
Other small incisions will be needed to place other instruments to remove any scar tissue and insert the surgical mesh into the abdomen.
This mesh or gauze is fixed under the affected area of the hernia on the strong tissues of the abdominal wall.
They are held in place with special surgical screws and, in many cases, surgical sutures.
Usually, it is necessary to make three or four incisions from 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch.
The stitches, which pass through the entire thickness of the abdominal wall, are placed through smaller incisions around the perimeter of the mesh. This operation is usually performed under general anaesthesia.
What should I expect on the day of hernia repair surgery?
- You usually arrive at the hospital on the morning of the operation.
- Usually, a qualified medical staff member will place a small needle or catheter into your vein to dispense medication during surgery. Often medications can be given before surgery, such as antibiotics.
- Your anesthesia will continue during surgery and up to several hours after surgery.
- After the procedure, you will be taken to a recovery room and remain there until you are fully awake.
- Many patients go home the same day of surgery, while others may need to be admitted for a day or more after surgery. The need to stay in the hospital will be determined by the extent of the surgical procedure and your general health.
What happens if the abdominal hernia repair cannot be performed or completed with the laparoscopic method?
In a small number of patients, the laparoscopic method cannot be performed. Factors that may increase the possibility of choosing or switching to the “open” procedure may include obesity, a long history of previous abdominal surgery causing extensive scarring, inability to visualize organs or bleeding problems during the procedure.
The decision to perform an open operation is a decision the surgeon makes either before or during the actual operation.
When the surgeon feels it is safer to convert the laparoscopic procedure to an open procedure, this is not a complication, but a sound surgical decision. The decision to switch to an open procedure is strictly based on patient safety.
What should I expect after abdominal hernia surgery?
- Patients are encouraged to do light activity while at home after surgery. Your surgeon will determine the range of activity, including lifting and other forms of physical exertion. Follow your surgeon's advice carefully. Discomfort after surgery is usually mild to moderate. Often, patients will need pain relievers.
- If you begin to have a fever, chills, vomiting, inability to urinate, or have drainage from your incisions, you should contact your surgeon immediately.
- If you have long-term soreness and are not getting relief from your prescribed pain relievers, you should tell your surgeon.
- Most patients are able to return to their normal activities in a short period of time. These activities include showering, driving, taking stairs, working, and having sex.
- Occasionally, patients develop a lump or some swelling in the area where their hernia was. This is often due to fluid collecting in the space prior to the hernia. This often goes away on its own over time. If not, the surgeon may suction it out with a needle in the clinic.
- You should ask your doctor when you need to make a follow-up appointment. Usually, patients schedule follow-up appointments within 2-3 weeks after the procedure.
Abdominal hernia surgery complications
What are the complications that can occur?
- Although this operation is considered safe, complications may occur as they may occur with any operation, and you should consult your doctor about your particular case.
Intraoperative complications may include adverse reactions to general anesthesia, bleeding, or injury to the intestines or other abdominal organs.
Other potential problems include pneumonia, blood clots, or heart problems.
If a network infection occurs, it may need to be removed or replaced. Also, anytime a hernia is repaired, it can recur.
- The long-term recurrence rate is not yet known. Preliminary results indicate that it is as good as the open approach.
Your surgeon will help you determine if the risks of laparoscopic hernia repair are lower than the risks of leaving the condition untreated.
- It is important to remember that before undergoing any type of surgery, be it laparoscopic or conventional, you should ask your surgeon about his training and experience.
When to contact your doctor after treatment of abdominal hernia
Be sure to contact your surgeon if any of the following occur:
- Persistent fever above 101 F (39 C)
- Increased flatulence or pain
- Pain that is not relieved by your medications
- Constant nausea or vomiting
- Persistent cough or shortness of breath
- Redness around your incisions
The most important frequently asked questions about abdominal hernia treatment in Turkey?
It is a weakness in the abdominal muscles that results in the intestines exiting through these muscles into the subcutaneous tissue
Unfortunately, so far, abdominal hernias and other types cannot be cured without surgery.
This includes open, endoscopic or robotic surgery.
Symptoms of a hernia include abdominal pain and a bulge at the site of the hernia.