Cervical-uterine-cancer-symptoms-causes-prevention-and-treatment
}August 15, 2021
jDr.. Muhannad Al-Khatib

Cervical cancer - symptoms, causes, prevention and treatment

Cervical cancer: symptoms, causes, prevention methods, and the best treatment centers in Turkey. Cervical cancer is one of the few cancers with a specific cause, which increases the possibility of prevention. Regular gynecological examinations and Pap tests are among the most important steps a woman can take to prevent cervical cancer.
}August 15, 2021
jDr.. Muhannad Al-Khatib

Cervical cancer - symptoms, causes, prevention and treatment

Cervical cancer: symptoms, causes, prevention methods, and the best treatment centers in Turkey. Cervical cancer is one of the few cancers with a specific cause, which increases the possibility of prevention. Regular gynecological examinations and Pap tests are among the most important steps a woman can take to prevent cervical cancer.

Table of Contents

    Cervical cancer, its symptoms, causes, prevention methods, and the best centers for its treatment in Turkey by the best doctors of obstetrics and gynecology in Istanbul.

    Cervical cancer is one of the few cancers with a specific cause, which increases the possibility of prevention. Regular gynecological examinations and Pap tests are among the most important steps a woman can take to prevent cervical cancer.

    According WHO Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women. In 2018, an estimated 570,000 cases were diagnosed worldwide.

    What is cervical cervix?

    The cervix is the lower part of the uterus. The uterus is made up of two parts - the upper part, where the baby grows, and the lower part, which is called the cervix. The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).

    What is cervical cancer?

    Cervical cancer occurs as a result of abnormal proliferation of cervical cells. There are two main types of cervical cancer - squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinomas make up about 80% to 90% of cases, while 10% to 20% are adenocarcinomas.

    cervical cancer

    cervical cancer

    What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

    In the early stages of cervical cancer, there are no pain or other symptoms. The first identifiable symptoms of the disease are likely to include:

    • Watery or bloody vaginal discharge that may be thick and may have a foul odor.
    • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse or exercise, between menstrual periods, or after menopause.
    • Menstrual periods are heavier and last longer than usual.

    If the cancer has spread to nearby tissues, symptoms may include:

    • Difficult or painful urination, sometimes with blood in the urine.
    • Diarrhea, pain or bleeding from the rectum when defecating.
    • Fatigue, weight loss and appetite.
    • Back pain or swelling in the legs.

    If abnormal bleeding, vaginal discharge, or other symptoms persist for more than two weeks without explanation, a complete gynecological examination including Pap smear should be performed.

    What are the causes of cervical cancer?

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) of some types is a cause of cervical cancer and is one of the few known cancers. In addition, there are many risk factors for infection. Some of the risk factors include:

    • Irregular gynecological examination: Women who do not have regular and regular Pap tests (Smear) tests are at increased risk of cervical cancer.
    • HPV infection: Some types of HPV are sexually transmitted and can infect the cervix. Cervical infection with HPV is the primary risk factor and causative agent of cervical cancer. However, a very small percentage of women with untreated HPV develop cervical cancer.
    • Sexual history: Females who start sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and have multiple sex partners are more likely to be infected with HPV and cervical cancer. Preventing sexually transmitted diseases reduces the risk of cervical cancer.
    • Smoking: Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer.
    • HIV infection: Women infected with HIV have a higher than average risk of developing cervical cancer.

    How is cervical cancer diagnosed?

    Pelvic exams and Pap smears can early detect most cases of cervical cancer. To get an accurate diagnosis, the doctor visually examines the cervix and takes a tissue sample to study for any obvious abnormalities to guide for a biopsy that diagnoses cancer in this condition.

    If the biopsy confirms the presence of cancer, more tests are used to see if the cancer has spread. These tests may include liver and kidney function studies, blood and urine tests, and X-rays of the bladder, rectum and intestines.

    Read more about Methods of diagnosing and treating cancer in Turkey

    What are the stages of cervical cancer?

    • Stage I: The cancer is only present in the cervix.
    • Stage 2: The cancer has spread outside the cervix but has not yet spread to the pelvic wall.
    • Stage III: The cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina or has spread to the pelvic wall and nearby lymph nodes.
    • Stage IV: Cancer at this stage affects the bladder, rectum, or other parts of the body.
    Cervical cancer stages

    Cervical cancer stages

    Are routine gynecological examinations necessary?

    There is no consensus in the medical community about whether a woman needs a pelvic exam in the years when she does not have to screen for cervical cancer. Some medical societies leave it up to the doctor to decide whether a pelvic exam should be performed, while others discourage doing a pelvic exam because of the inconvenience it causes to the patient. Unfortunately, a pelvic exam has never been shown to prevent cancer, especially for the cancers that worry women the most, such as ovarian cancer.

    Young women age 25 or younger who are sexually active are advised to have an annual screening test for chlamydia.

    How is cervical cancer treated in Turkey?

    Cervical cancer treatment depends on many factors including the stage of the cancer, the patient's age, the woman's general health, and her desire to have children in the future.

    The three main treatments for cervical cancer are radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Radiation or chemotherapy may be used to treat cancer that has spread outside the pelvis (stage IV) or recurrent cancer.

    There are two methods of radiotherapy:

    • Either a device loaded with radioactive granules is placed in the vagina near the cancer and held in place for a certain period of time.
    • Or, the targeted areas are exposed to radiation over multiple sessions with the radiotherapist.

    Chemotherapy:

    There are a variety of chemotherapy drugs that are used. Sometimes, surgery is used, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used before or after surgery.

    Hysterectomy

    Hysterectomy

    Surgical treatment:

    Various types of surgical techniques are used to treat cervical cancer. Here are some of the most common cervical cancer surgical treatments:

    • Laser surgery: This surgery uses a laser beam to burn cells or to take a small piece of tissue for study.
    • Cone biopsy: a surgical procedure in which a cone-shaped piece of tissue is removed from the cervix.
    • Simple hysterectomy: This surgery involves removing the uterus, not the tissue adjacent to the uterus. The vagina or the lymph nodes in the pelvis are not removed.
    • Radical removal of the uterus and pelvic lymph nodes: In this surgery, the uterus and surrounding tissues and a small section of the upper part of the vagina and lymph nodes are removed from the pelvis.

    Cancer in its early stages may be curable by removing the cancerous tissue. In advanced cases, a simple or radical hysterectomy is resorted to.

    Can cervical cancer be prevented?

    Women can take some measures to prevent cervical cancer. Getting regular gynecological exams is one of the most important steps a woman can take to prevent cervical cancer.

    The American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends the following guidelines for a regular cervical exam:

    • All women should start having regular cervical smears when they are 21 years old. The examination must be repeated every 3 years.

    Further tests may be needed if any abnormal cells are found or if HPV is present.

    • Starting at age 30, women who have had 3 normal Pap test results in a row can have screening every 5 years with a Pap test and a high-risk HPV infection test. Another acceptable option is to be screened every 3 years with a Pap test only.

    Women with certain risk factors such as prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), HIV infection, or a weakened immune system due to organ transplants, chemotherapy, or chronic steroid use should be screened annually.

    • Women ages 65 to 70 or older who have had three consecutive negative (normal) Pap smears and no abnormal Pap test results in the past 20 years should stop having cervical cancer screening. Women who have a history of cervical cancer, prenatal exposure to DES, HIV infection, or a weak immune system should continue to have screening as long as they are healthy.
    • Women who have had a complete hysterectomy (removal of the uterus and cervix) should also stop having cervical cancer screening, unless they have a history or potential for cervical cancer.

    Women who have had a hysterectomy without removing the cervix should continue to follow the above guidelines.

    risk factors

    risk factors

    What are the recommendations for cervical cancer screening?

    The medical community agrees on the following recommendations:

    • Cervical cancer screening should begin at age 21, regardless of sexual history.
    • For women between the ages of 21 and 29, screening every 3 years with a cervical smear only (no HPV testing) is recommended.
    • For women age 30 and older, a combined Pap smear and HPV test should be done every 5 years, or a Pap test alone every 3 years.
    • A routine Pap smear is not needed in women who have had a complete hysterectomy of a benign cause and who have no history of CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) grade II or higher.
    • Cervical cancer screening can be stopped at age 65 in women who have had 2 consecutive normal combined test results (Pap smear, HPV test) or 3 consecutive normal Pap smear results in the past 10 years.
    • Women who have been appropriately treated for CIN grade 2 or higher will need to continue screening for 20 years, even if they are over the age of 65.

    The above recommendations do not apply to women who are HIV-positive, immunocompromised, or have a history of prenatal drug exposure to DES.

    It's important to remember that a diagnostic Pap smear can be done earlier if the woman has emergency problems, such as unusual bleeding.

    Also, women whose cases are being followed up due to pathological smear results or who have been treated for these conditions will have different follow-up schedules than mentioned above.

    What is the cervical cancer vaccine?

    The Gardasil® cervical cancer vaccine, approved for girls and women ages 9 to 26, prevents cervical cancer. This vaccine, which also protects against genital warts (it's also approved for males for this purpose) works by stimulating the body's immune system to attack certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV), which have been linked to many cases of cervical cancer.

    It is best to take the vaccination before the start of sexual activity. The vaccination consists of a series of 3 doses, the second dose comes two months after the first, and the third dose comes six months after the first dose.

    What are the survival rates for cervical cancer?

    Studies show that for women with cervical cancer caught at an early stage, the 5-year survival rate is more than 90%.

    The overall 5-year relative survival rate for cervical cancer is about 68%.

    This rate takes into account all stages of cancer combined.

    Bimaristan Medical Center remains your first choice for treatment in Turkey.
    We direct you to the best specialists who are experts in all fields, we break the language barrier, Arab specialist doctors will help you in communicating with your doctor, we help you book an appointment in the most important and modern hospitals in Turkey, we offer our services to secure hotel reservations for you and your companions, in addition to transportation, we help you secure a travel visa for you for free.
    We provide our services throughout Turkey, the best place to provide you with treatment is our destination.
    We accompany you step by step towards recovery.
    Free consultations around the clock.
    do not hesitate Contact usBimaristan, your family center in Turkey. You can also read on our website about breast cancer And the latest treatment techniques for him in Turkey.

    Frequently asked questions and answers about cervical cancer and its treatment in Turkey

    Is cervical cancer fatal? What is the cure rate for cervical cancer?

    With early detection of cervical cancer, the survival rate is 90% if follow-up and appropriate treatment is received.

    Does cervical cancer affect the virgin?

    As mentioned earlier, HPV is considered to be a sexually transmitted virus that causes the disease, so in the absence of sexual relations, cervical cancer is unlikely.

    What are the stages of cervical cancer?

    Stage I: The cancer is only present in the cervix.
    Stage 2: The cancer has spread outside the cervix but has not yet spread to the pelvic wall.
    Stage III: The cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina or has spread to the pelvic wall and nearby lymph nodes.
    Stage IV: Cancer at this stage affects the bladder, rectum, or other parts of the body.

    What is the difference between the symptoms of cervicitis and cervical cancer?

    Cervical infections may be asymptomatic, but some symptoms may appear, such as pain during or after intercourse, mucous secretions, vaginal bleeding during or after intercourse.
    As for the symptoms of cervical cancer, as we mentioned earlier, it may be non-accidental in its beginning, and symptoms may appear in advanced stages, such as the exit of thick, foul-smelling bloody secretions, pain during intercourse, bleeding during intercourse, between menstrual periods or after menopause.

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