Ovarian cancer - symptoms and treatment methods in Turkey

Ovarian Cancer - Symptoms and Treatments

Ovarian cancer in women is one of the most important cancers of the female reproductive system. Learn about the most important symptoms, signs and treatment methods in Turkey.

Ovarian cancer is one of the types of cancer that affects the female reproductive system. The bloating associated with ovarian cancer in women causes obvious abdominal swelling in its advanced stages. Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread. Learn about ovarian cancer symptoms, stages of ovarian cancer, treatment and surgery for ovarian cancer in Turkey in this article.

ovarian cancer ovarian cancer The silent killer is a type of cancer that starts in a woman's ovaries - the ovaries are small organs in the female reproductive system that produce eggs. It can be difficult to diagnose ovarian cancer in women early because it often does not cause any symptoms until later stages. But once ovarian cancer is detected, it can be treated with chemotherapy and surgery.

What is the ovary? And where is it located?

The ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. If you imagine the female reproductive system organs as an upside-down triangle, the ovaries are a pair of rounded organs in the upper corners.

The ovaries - each about the size of a walnut - are connected to the uterus by two thin tubes called fallopian tubes (the fallopian tubes) connecting them.

The uterus forms the lower point of the triangle. During the childbearing years, eggs form in the ovaries, travel through the fallopian tubes and then into the uterus.

What is ovarian cancer and how does it arise?

Cancer develops when certain cells begin to grow abnormally. This can happen in any organ of the body. When this abnormal growth occurs in the ovaries, you may develop ovarian cancer.

All cells go through their own life cycles, growing, dividing, and being replaced. They even undergo programmed cell death when they stop working properly or if they are no longer useful, at which point the cells die. Some of its mutations cause rapid growth and multiple divisions, and they don't die when they should.

This abnormal growth of cells can cause problems that usually lead to the formation of a tumor. Tumors can be cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign).

Benign and malignant tumors act in different ways. A benign tumor does not spread and stays in one place and grows slowly.

Your health care provider may recommend monitoring it or surgically removing the tumor. Usually, polyps don't pose an immediate threat to your health. Malignant tumors (cancers) are more aggressive. These cancers tend to grow quickly and can invade other organs, spreading.

When malignant (cancerous) cells develop in the ovarian ovaries, it is called ovarian cancer.

What are the causes of ovarian cancer?

The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown. However, women may be more likely to develop ovarian cancer if they have:

  • Women have a family history of ovarian cancer (others in your family have had the disease) or have inherited a genetic mutation (BRCA1 or BRCA2).
  • Women of Jewish descent from Eastern Europe.
  • There is no previous pregnancy.
  • History of infection withBreast cancer or Uterus or colon and rectum.
  • aging
  • Lynch syndrome. This syndrome affects families and can increase the risk of infection withColon Cancer. Lynch syndrome is associated with many other types of cancer. If you have Lynch syndrome, your risk of developing other cancers increases. Lynch syndrome is a genetic condition, so talk to your family about any history of ovarian cancer or Uterus or rectum;

How do I know if ovarian cancer gene mutations run in my family?

If you have a strong family history of ovarian cancer or Breast cancer, your health care provider might suggest genetic testing.

This type of test will identify any mutations or changes you have in your genetic makeup. Understanding your family history and genetic makeup can help early cancer treatment.

Talk to your healthcare provider about your family historyBreast cancer and ovarian cancer) and discuss the types of preventative measures you can take to protect your health.

What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?

Unfortunately, ovarian cancer can develop, become very large, and spread without causing any symptoms. This makes early detection of ovarian cancer difficult.

But when symptoms do appear, they can include:

  • Pain, discomfort, or swelling in the pelvis and abdomen.
  • Changes in your eating habits, such as being full early and losing your appetite. You may experience bloating, belching, and sometimes stomach pain.
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge (especially if the bleeding occurs outside the usual menstrual cycle or after menopause), and less often, intestinal disorders, such as diarrhea and constipation.
  • Feeling of any unusual lumps (obvious bulge) or an increase in the size of your abdomen.
  • Frequent urination or urinary urgency.
  • Weight loss and loss of appetite.

How is ovarian cancer diagnosed?

For many types of cancer, there are tests that detect cancer at an early stage when it's curable, before symptoms appear.

studies show that Cervical smears orbreast imaging X-rays in women andcolonoscopy Examples of screening tests that many people are familiar with that help diagnose early cancer. Unfortunately, there are no tests for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Diagnostic testing for ovarian cancer is usually done after symptoms appear.

It is important to be aware and check up regularlyTo communicate with your health care provider When you notice something unusual. Because ovarian cancer symptoms vary, it's also important to discuss persistent symptoms that last for more than two to three weeks with your health care provider.

Your doctor may start with a medical history and physical exam, including a pelvic exam. This test is used to check for any abnormal mass or enlargement of the organs in the pelvis. This first test may give your doctor more information and help determine the types of additional tests you may need.

Additional tests to diagnose ovarian cancer can include:

  • Pelvic ultrasound:

Ultrasound imaging is one of the most important methods. It allows the doctor to transmit an image of the ovaries and nearby organs. This can be done above the skin (usually above the abdomen) or internally through the vagina.

These imaging tests are painless and do not require preparation from the woman. During the test, your doctor will look at your ovaries to see if they are enlarged or have any abnormal growths. Ultrasound will show all growths, not just cancerous ones. This test is usually followed by several other tests that confirm your diagnosis.

The diagnosis of ovarian cancer was confirmed by an echocardiogram
Echo of ovarian cancer mass

Other imaging tests that can help diagnose ovarian cancer include:

  • Magnetic resonance imaging.
  • CT scan.
  • PET scan (positron emission tomography).
  • Chest X-ray.
  • Blood tests: Blood tests look for a substance called CA-125. High levels of CA-125 in the blood can be a sign of cancer. However, CA-125 levels can be normal, even in the presence of ovarian cancer, and may be elevated in many noncancerous conditions. For this reason, blood tests are used in addition to other tests to diagnose ovarian cancer.
  • Surgical evaluation: Ovarian cancer can be diagnosed during surgery. Ovarian cancer is also treated with surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Laparoscopy: Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure in which a thin camera (laparoscope) is inserted through a small incision (incision) made in the abdomen that enables a health care provider to further evaluate ovarian cancer, take biopsies, and, in some cases, remove ovarian tumors.
Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive method for detecting ovarian cancer
A picture of a laparoscope revealing ovarian cancer

What are the stages of ovarian cancer?

The staging of ovarian cancer is one of the most important ways to determine the extent of its spread. When your doctor determines the stage of ovarian cancer, many factors are taken into account, including:

  • Organs affected by cancer cells: The health service provider will want to determine whether ovarian cancer affects one or both ovaries, or whether it has spread to nearby organs in the pelvis (womb), abdomen, or elsewhere.

Cancer cells have many ways in which they can spread throughout the body. Ovarian cancer can spread directly through the pelvis and abdomen, through lymph nodes, or through blood vessels.

There are four stages to ovarian cancer. The lower the number is the least severe, the more severe the condition, the higher the number.

  • The first stage: This stage is divided into three sub-stages (stage IA, phase IB, and phase IC). In the first stage, ovarian cancer is confined to one of the ovaries or one of the fallopian tubes. Stage IB The cancer is in either the ovaries or the fallopian tubes. In stage IC, the cancer is in both the ovaries or the fallopian tubes and outside the ovary (in the outside of the ovary itself or in the space around the ovary).
  • The second phase: The second stage is also divided into a few additional stages. In stage IIA, ovarian cancer is not confined to its place, but has spread to the uterus. In stage IIB, ovarian cancer has spread to nearby organs in the abdomen.
  • third level: This stage includes three sub-stages. In stage IIIA, ovarian cancer has spread beyond the abdomen through the lymph nodes. In stage IIIB, the tumor is about 2 cm in size and has spread beyond the abdominal area. In stage IIIC, ovarian cancer has spread beyond the pelvic area and is larger (more than 2 cm). At this stage it can affect any other organs such as the liver.
  • The fourth stage: Stage IV ovarian cancer is the most severe. At this point, the cancer has spread. In stage IVA, ovarian cancer has invaded the lungs, and in stage IVB, ovarian cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the groin.

An interim evaluation is important because it will help your health care provider develop a treatment plan for you. Your healthcare provider will discuss This plan is with you and talks about the best type of treatment for you.

In the early stages of ovarian cancer, the cancer is small in size, and in the later stages, it becomes large in size
A picture showing the stages of ovarian cancer

How is ovarian cancer treated in Turkey?

The goal of ovarian cancer treatment is to remove as much, if not all, of the cancer from your body as possible. If you have ovarian cancer, treatment often requires removal of the genitals and any organ to which ovarian cancer has spread, including parts of the intestine and omentum (a fatty substance that covers the intestine).

Surgical removal of ovarian cancer can be done through laparoscopy (a minimally invasive surgical procedure also used to diagnose cancer) or through an abdominal incision. Laparotomy is a broad surgical procedure in which the doctor opens the abdomen using a larger incision and is able to remove the ovaries. Adjacent organs to which the cancer has spread may also be removed during this procedure.

Your health care provider may recommend chemotherapy either before or after surgery depending on several things, including how far the cancer has spread at the time of diagnosis. Chemotherapy are drugs designed to target and kill cancer cells.

After ovarian cancer treatment, your health care provider will want to see you regularly for monitoring. You may have routine appointments for screening to ensure that ovarian cancer does not recur over time.

Consider any symptoms you may have and tell your doctor about them. Sometimes, your doctor may order imaging tests.

How can ovarian cancer be prevented?

There is no way to completely prevent ovarian cancer. You may be able to reduce your risk of developing cancer by maintaining a healthy weight and practicing good lifestyle habits (exercise, eating a balanced diet, limiting alcohol). Currently, there are no regular tests that enable women to diagnose ovarian cancer early, so many women don't realize they have it until symptoms begin.

However, knowing your family history can help you prepare for any increased risk factors for ovarian cancer. If you have a type of ovarian cancer that is genetically transmitted, you should Talk to a healthcare provider your about it.

If you have a genetic mutation such as a BRCA mutation, preventative surgery may be needed to reduce your risk by removing your ovaries and uterus before they become cancerous.

What can reduce my risk of ovarian cancer?

Women who have had children or who use oral contraceptives (birth control pills) are less likely to develop ovarian cancer than other women. If you've used birth control pills for longer than (at least five years), you may have a lower risk of ovarian cancer.

What after recovery from ovarian cancer?

After you've been treated for ovarian cancer, your health care provider will still call you for regular appointments. It's important to pay close attention to your body and tell your health provider if anything unusual happens. Observation and observation are key after ovarian cancer treatment.


It can be difficult for women to detect ovarian cancer early because it is often asymptomatic. Without any signs that something is wrong, cancer can grow without you even knowing it's there. There are currently no tests to detect ovarian cancer.

For this reason, it's important to know your family history and talk to your health care provider. Knowing your risk factors can help your doctor know your risk and possibly perform genetic testing. If you experience any symptoms of ovarian cancer, Get in touch with your health care provider Immediately.

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Common Questions

About two in 10 women with advanced ovarian cancer recover with a survival rate of at least 12 years after treatment.

For all ovarian cancers, 75% women live for at least one year, and about 46% women can live up to five years if detected early.

There is no specific test for diagnosing ovarian cancer. Ultrasound is one of the methods, but women still need other complementary examinations.

Ovarian cancer is called the silent killer because it remains asymptomatic in its advanced stages.

According to the latest studies, in the first stage the five-year survival rate is about 91%, in the second stage it declines to 75% to reach the advanced stages of 31%.

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