Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is caused by a hormonal imbalance that usually begins in puberty, and the treatments available for this syndrome have varied greatly in Turkey.
What is PCOS?
Polycystic ovary syndrome, or as it is commonly known as polycystic ovary syndrome, is a syndrome characterized by hormonal changes and changes in the menstrual cycle in women, and it often occurs in which a number of small cysts or fluid-filled sacs grow on the ovaries, and these cysts are not harmful, but they are often The cause of the hormonal changes seen.
Due to the fact that polycystic ovary syndrome is the name given to this polycystic ovary syndrome, doctors have used this name in excess, as a woman can have polycystic ovaries without the occurrence of the symptoms seen in the syndrome and vice versa.
It should also be noted that each case of polycystic ovaries is treated differently, and some matters cannot be considered in one case and generalized to other cases.
Women with PCOS may also experience menstrual irregularities, increased levels of androgen (male hormone), excessive hair growth, acne and obesity.
In addition to the many pathological conditions associated with PCOS, which will be discussed in this article, PCOS is the most common cause of infertility in women because the ovaries in this syndrome may fail or fail to ovulate, as this condition interferes with the ability to conceive. Natural and childbearing.
Women who can become pregnant with PCOS have a higher incidence of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-related high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, and premature delivery, and an increased risk of endometrial cancer At an early age.
Causes and risk factors for PCOS
Research continues to discover the cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome, but so far the cause has not been clearly identified.
It is believed that PCOS has a genetic cause. People who have a mother or sister with PCOS are more likely to develop PCOS than people whose relatives do not have the condition. This family connection is often the main risk factor.
He also suspects problems of the pituitary gland, as the excess secretion of androgens from the ovaries stimulates the luteinizing hormone (LH), which in turn is secreted by the pituitary gland, and that any problem that increases the secretion of LH will lead to symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Obesity, poor health and lack of movement can also increase the risk of PCOS.
Sugar is the main source of energy in the body, and it is regulated in the body by insulin secreted by the pancreas. A patient with insulin resistance cannot use insulin efficiently. This causes the pancreas to release more insulin to meet the body's glucose needs.
Excess insulin is thought to affect a woman's ability to ovulate due to its effect on androgen production. Research has also shown that women with PCOS have an inflammatory condition that stimulates the ovaries to produce androgens, which helps trigger symptoms in PCOS.
Symptoms of ovarian cysts (symptoms of ovarian cysts)
In addition to the presence of cysts on the ovaries, symptoms of PCOS (polycystic ovaries) include:
- irregular menstruation
- Abnormal uterine bleeding
- Excess androgen levels
- Sleep Apnea
- High blood pressure
- Acne, oily skin and dandruff
- High cholesterol and triglycerides, or dark spots on the skin
- male pattern baldness
- Insulin resistance
- Type 2 diabetes
- pelvic pain
- depression and anxiety
- Fatigue and stress
- Difficulty controlling weight, including weight gain or difficulty losing weight
- Excessive facial and body hair growth, known as hirsutism
- decreased libido
- Liver diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
- There is also an increased risk of endometrial cancer, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-related high blood pressure, heart attack and miscarriage
How is PCOS diagnosed in Turkey?
Most cases of PCOS can be diagnosed through a thorough evaluation of your medical history and symptoms, as well as a physical exam.
A blood test may be needed to measure levels of various hormones, and in some cases, an ultrasound of the ovaries may aid in the diagnosis.
Polycystic ovaries treatment
There is no cure for PCOS, but treatment is aimed at managing and relieving the symptoms of the patient.
Treatment for PCOS depends on whether the patient wants to become pregnant or just aims to reduce the risk of developing secondary medical conditions, such as heart disease and diabetes.
There are many treatment options recommended in Turkey, including:
- Birth control pills: can help regulate hormonal imbalances and menstruation.
- Diabetes medications: Help control diabetes, if needed.
- Fertility medications: If pregnancy is desired, these include the use of clomiphene (Clomid), a combination of clomiphene and metformin, or gonadotropin drugs, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) drugs. In some cases, they may be recommended. Using letrozole (Femara).
- Fertility treatments: In vitro fertilization (IVF)IVF) or Artificial insemination.
- Excessive hair growth can be reduced with spironolactone (Aldactone) or eflornithine (Vanica). Finasteride (Propecia) may also be recommended, but it should not be taken by women of childbearing age.
- Anyone using spironolactone must use birth control, due to the risk of birth defects in a fetus if it is taken during pregnancy. Breast-feeding is not recommended when using this medicine.
- Other possible options for managing hair growth include laser hair removal, hormonal treatments, or the use of vitamins and minerals.
In addition to this, there are surgical options which include:
- Ovarian perforation: Small holes made in the ovaries can reduce the levels of androgen production.
- Surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
- Hysterectomy: It involves the removal of all or part of the uterus.
- Cyst aspiration: The fluid is removed from the cyst.
There is no cure for PCOS as mentioned above, but some home and lifestyle interventions can make a difference and relieve some symptoms.
- Follow a healthy, balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits and vegetables.
- Participate in regular physical activities.
- Maintain a healthy weight, to reduce androgen levels and reduce the risk of diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.
- Quit smoking, as this increases the levels of androgens and the risk of heart disease.
Polycystic ovaries and pregnancy
There may be an increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and premature labour. These complications are more common in twins or triplets.
In the case of polycystic ovaries, implantation and fertilization are difficult, so the patient may need IVF.
How can I improve my chances of getting pregnant if I have PCOS?
There are some specific fertility issues that you should address with your doctor, but there are some general health care tips that may improve your chances of getting pregnant:
- Folic acid (400 mcg. Supplement daily, with a diet rich in folic acid, including leafy greens, dried beans, liver, and citrus fruits)
- Limit caffeine (drinking less than two caffeinated drinks per day).
- Eat a healthy balanced diet.
- Exercise and maintain a healthy weight. Maintain a regular exercise routine, 20 to 30 minutes a day, 4 to 5 times a week.
The causes of PCOS are not clear, but early diagnosis can help relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. Anyone who develops symptoms of PCOS should see a doctor.