Cervical cancer

Uterine cancer - symptoms and treatment of endometrial cancer

What is uterine cancer, risk factors for uterine cancer, its symptoms and causes, treatment methods in Turkey.

Let's first agree that there is a difference between endometrium uterus tumor andCervical cancers cervical cancers.

Uterine cancer includes two types of cancer: endometrial cancer (more common) and uterine sarcoma. Symptoms of uterine cancer include bleeding between menstrual periods or after menopause. Treatment often requires a hysterectomy to remove the tumor.

What is the function of the uterus?

The uterus is part of the female reproductive system. It is where the baby grows and develops during pregnancy.

The upper part of the uterus is called the uterine body. At the bottom is the cervical, which connects the uterus to the vagina. Uterine cancer refers to cancer in the body of the uterus. Cervical cancer is a separate type of cancer.

What is the function of the endometrium?

The endometrium is the inner layer of the uterus. Its thickness changes during the menstrual cycle.

Estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to thicken during pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the body produces less estrogen and more progesterone, a different hormone. When this happens, the uterine lining sheds and sheds, which is what happens in menstrual cycles.

What is uterine cancer?

Uterine cancer is a general term describing all types of uterine cancer:

Endometrial cancer originates in the inner lining of the uterus. It is one of the most common types of gynecological cancer.

While uterine sarcoma develops in the muscles of the uterine wall. In addition, other types of tumors that affect the connective tissue surrounding the uterus are very rare.

Are endometrium uterus tumor and uterine cancer the same?

Uterine cancer can refer to endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma, or other rare forms of cancer that originate in the uterus. Many people consider the terms “endometrial cancer” and “uterine cancer” the same thing. This is because endometrial cancers are more common than other cancers that originate in the uterus.

How common is uterine cancer?

In the United States, endometrial cancer is the most common type of cancer of the female reproductive system. It most often affects women after menopause. About 3% of women will be diagnosed with uterine cancer at some point in their lives. It is the third most common cause of death among cancers affecting only women, after ovarian cancer and the cervix.

It is more common in developed countries and is the most common gynecological cancer in developed countries.

What are the causes of uterine cancer?

Researchers are not sure of the exact cause of uterine cancer. For some reason changes occur in the cells of the uterus. The mutated cells grow and multiply out of control, forming a mass called a tumor.

Certain risk factors can increase your chances of developing uterine cancer. If you're at high risk, talk to your doctor about steps you can take to protect your health.

Who is at risk of developing uterine cancer?

There are many risk factors for endometrial cancer. Much of it is related to the balance between estrogen and progesterone. Exposure to estrogen without contrasting with progesterone and all that causes that increases the risk of developing a uterine tumor.

Cancer risk factors include:

  • Age, lifestyle and family history:
  • Age: As women get older, the risk of developing uterine cancer increases. Most uterine cancers arise after the age of fifty.
  • A diet rich in animal fats: A diet high in fat can increase the risk of several types of cancer, including uterine cancer. Fatty foods are also high in calories, which can lead to obesity. Excess weight is a risk factor for uterine cancer.
  • Family history: Some parents pass on genetic mutations (changes) tocolon cancer and hereditary non-polyposis rectum (HNPCC). This inherited condition increases your risk of developing a range of cancers, including endometrial cancer.
    cervical cancer
    cervical cancer

    Other terms:

  • Diabetes: This disease is often associated with obesity, which is a risk factor for cancer. But some studies suggest a direct link between diabetes and uterine cancer as well.
  • Obesity (increased body weight): Some hormones are converted into estrogen by fatty tissue, which increases the risk of uterine cancer. The greater the amount of fatty tissue, the greater the changes in the balance of hormones in the body.
  • Ovarian disease: Women with certain tumors of the ovaries have high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. These hormonal changes can increase the risk of uterine cancer.
  • Menstrual date:
  • Early menstruation: If you start menstruating before age 12, your risk of uterine cancer may be increased. This is because the uterus is exposed to estrogen for many years.
  • Late menopause: Similarly, if menopause occurs after the age of 50, the risk also increases. The uterus is exposed to estrogen for a longer time.
  • Long menstrual period: The number of years of menstruation may be more important than your age when your period began or ended.
  • Not pregnant: Women who are not pregnant are at greater risk due to increased exposure to estrogen

Treatments for other conditions:

  • Radiation therapy to the pelvis (between the abdomen and legs): Radiation therapy to treat other cancers can damage the DNA of cells. This damage may increase the risk of developing a second type of cancer.
  • Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT): Some people receive estrogen therapy to help relieve menopausal symptoms. Women who take an ERT without progesterone have a higher risk of developing uterine cancer.

    Image showing where early pelvic radiotherapy is directed to treat cancers in this area
    Early pelvic radiotherapy to treat cancers in this area, but it also damages healthy cells

  • Tamoxifen use: People may receive this drug to treat breast cancer. It acts like estrogen in the uterus and may increase the risk of uterine cancer.

What are the symptoms of uterine cancer?

Symptoms of uterine cancer may be nonspecific and similar to symptoms caused by other conditions affecting the reproductive organs. If you notice unusual pain or bleeding, talk to your health care provider. An accurate diagnosis is important so that you can get the right treatment.

Symptoms of endometrial cancer or uterine sarcoma include:

  • Vaginal bleeding between periods in premenopausal women.
  • Vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women, even in a small amount.
  • Lower abdominal pain or pelvic cramps just below the abdomen.
  • White or clear vaginal discharge in postmenopausal women.
  • Prolonged, heavy or frequent vaginal bleeding in women over 40 years of age.

How is uterine cancer diagnosed?

Your doctor may do one or more tests to confirm a diagnosis of uterine cancer:

  • Laboratory tests:

The CA-125 assay is a blood sample drawn in which we measure the amount of CA-125 protein. A certain amount of CA-125 can indicate the presence of cancer in the body.

  • Imaging tests:
Ultrasound scan showing uterine cancer
Pictures of the uterus showing endometrial cancer

A CT scan takes a series of detailed pictures of the inside of the body.

MRI scans use radio waves and a powerful magnet to create the images.

A transvaginal ultrasound inserts a special probe (a soft, round device) from inside the vagina to obtain images of the uterus.

  • Other tests:

Surgical biopsy We biopsy the endometrium through a thin, flexible tube through the cervix (the opening to the vagina) and into the uterus. The doctor removes a portion of the tissue lining the uterus.

Hysteroscopy A hysteroscope, a long thin tube, is inserted through the vagina and cervix to reach the uterus. Equipped with a light and camera, this precision instrument provides detailed images of the uterus.

Dilation and curettage (D&C) is a more complex procedure to remove uterine tissue. It takes place in the operating room.

Your doctor sends the sample to a laboratory. There, a pathologist checks the tissue for cancer.

If health care providers diagnose endometrial cancer, they also need to determine the type. The type helps the care team find the best treatment:

  • Type 1 endometrial cancers are considered less dangerous. It usually does not spread to other tissues quickly.
  • Type 2 endometrial cancers are considered more serious. They are more likely to spread outside the uterus and need stronger treatment.

How is uterine cancer treated in Turkey?

Most people with endometrial cancer need surgery. Your management and treatment plan depends on the type of cancer and the patients' general health conditions. Other treatments you may take include:

  • Chemotherapy, which uses powerful drugs to destroy cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy, which sends directed beams of radiation to destroy cancer cells.
  • Hormone therapy, which gives hormones that inhibit the growth of cancer or prevents tumor-stimulating hormones from taking effect.
  • Immunotherapy, which helps the immune system fight cancer.
  • Targeted therapy, which uses drugs to target specific cancer cells to prevent them from multiplying.
A radiograph showing the location of the radiation focus for the treatment of uterine cancer
Uterine cancer treatment with radiotherapy

Researchers continue to study more ways to treat endometrial cancer.

What type of uterine cancer surgery may be performed for the patient?

Surgery is usually the main treatment for endometrial cancer. There are three types of hysterectomy procedures:

  • Total abdominal hysterectomy: The surgeon makes an incision (cut) in the abdomen to access and remove the uterus.
  • Vaginal hysterectomy: The surgeon removes the uterus through the vagina.
  • Radical hysterectomy: If the cancer has spread to the cervix, you may need a radical hysterectomy. The surgeon removes the uterus and the tissues adjacent to the uterus. The surgeon also removes the upper part of the vagina next to the cervix.

During a hysterectomy, surgeons often perform two other procedures as well:

  • Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes. Most people need this extra step to make sure all cancers are removed.
  • Lymph nodes are removed and sent for histopathology to see if the cancer has spread.

How is uterine sarcoma treated in Turkey?

Often, surgeons use a single procedure to diagnose, stage (describe its severity) and treat uterine sarcoma. Treatment options such as those for endometrial cancer. Most women undergo a hysterectomy, as well as a BSO to remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

Can uterine cancer be prevented?

Most of the time, you can't prevent uterine cancer. But you can take steps to reduce your risk:

  • Diabetes control.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.

Talk to your doctor about using oral contraceptives. These medications can offer some protection against uterine cancer.

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don't hesitate tocontact us, Bimaristan Family Center in Turkey. You can also read about Breast cancer and its latest treatments in Turkey.

Frequently asked questions and answers about uterine cancer and its treatment in Turkey

Does endometrial cancer cure? What is the cure rate of endometrial cancer?

The National Cancer Institute reported The five-year survival rate for endometrial cancer is 81%. This means that 81% of people diagnosed with the disease are still alive after five years. The rate is higher when the cancer is localized and has not spread outside the uterus. The survival rate may be as high as 95%. Treatments continue to improve, along with survival rates.

Can a Pap test diagnose uterine cancer?

A Pap test (a Pap smear) does not detect or diagnose uterine cancer.

Do I need to have the ovaries removed?

Many people with uterine cancer need to have their ovaries removed. But having your ovaries removed means you'll go through menopause. If you're under 45 and you're perimenopause, talk to your care team to see if you can keep your ovaries.

What can I expect after uterine surgery?

Vaginal hysterectomy with preservation of the ovaries
Vaginal hysterectomy

Side effects of uterine cancer surgery include:

  • Infertility, the inability to become pregnant.
  • Menopause (if you're perimenopause) and its symptoms, including vaginal dryness and night sweats

Will estrogen replacement therapy increase the risk of uterine cancer?

If you're considering ERT, talk to your health care provider. Together, you can discuss your cancer risks and make the best decision for you.

Is there a periodic examination to detect uterine cancer in Turkey?

No, there is no periodic checking tool. Health care providers usually don't recommend regular testing for women who are asymptomatic. They may do this for women at higher risk. If you're at high risk, talk to your doctor about regular screenings for uterine cancer.

Can uterine cancer be treated?

Fortunately, endometrial cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. This is because many women notice unusual bleeding and tell their doctor providers. If the cancer is caught early and hasn't spread to other organs, removing the uterus can treat it.

When should I see my doctor?

Cervical cancer
advanced stage cancer

According to the American Cancer Society, you should discuss any unusual bleeding or pain with your doctor. If there are factors that increase your risk of uterine cancer, consult your doctor about an annual exam. You may need an endometrial biopsy every year, starting at age 35.

 What should I ask my doctor if I have been diagnosed with uterine cancer?

If you've been diagnosed with uterine cancer, ask your provider:

  • What is the stage of the cancer?
  • What treatment options are best for me?
  • Will I need more than one treatment?
  • What is the goal of treatment?
  • What can I expect after treatment?
  • Will the cancer return?
  • Am I at risk of other types of cancer?
  • How can I take care of myself after uterine cancer treatment?

After treatment is completed, your care team will talk to you about your follow-up visits. It is important that you go to these appointments. During your follow-up visit, your doctor will perform a pelvic exam. He or she will also ask you about any symptoms. The goal is to make sure the cancer doesn't come back and that you're okay after treatment.

You can also talk to your doctor about ways to live a healthier life after cancer. Eating well, getting enough sleep, and exercising can help you feel your best.

Ultimately, uterine cancer includes endometrial cancer (more common) and uterine sarcoma. This disease is the most common type of cancer of the female reproductive system. This usually happens after menopause. But it can affect younger women, too. Symptoms of uterine cancer include vaginal bleeding between menstrual periods or after menopause. If someone develops uterine cancer before it spreads, surgery can cure it.

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