Uterine cancer symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Turkey - Bimaristan
Cervical cancer

The comprehensive guide for women with endometrial cancer in Turkey

Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, as it constitutes approximately 3.5% of all cancers, and that is why Turkey has paid great attention to the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

Let us first agree that there is a difference between Cancer with mercy (endometrium uterus tumor or sarcoma of the uterus) fCervical cancers cervical cancers, and we will mention the difference in this article, as patients often confuse the two types.

Uterine cancer includes two types of cancer: endometrial cancer (most common) and uterine sarcoma. Symptoms of uterine cancer include bleeding between periods or after menopause. Treatment often requires a hysterectomy to remove the tumor.

What is Uterine cancer?

Uterine cancer is a general term that describes all types of uterine cancer.
Cancer often originates in the inner lining of the uterus, and this type is one of the most common types of gynecological cancers.

There is another type of uterine cancer, depending on the place or layer in which the cancer originated from the uterus, where malignant uterine sarcoma develops in the muscles of the uterine wall, and another very common type arises in the muscular layer, which is Uterine myoma healthy, in addition to other types of tumors that affect the connective tissues surrounding the uterus, but they are very rare.

The upper part of the uterus is called the body of the uterus. At the bottom is the cervical cervix that connects the uterus to the vagina. Uterine cancer refers to cancer in the body of the uterus. Cervical cancer is a separate type of cancer.

An overview of the uterus and its function

The uterus is the part of the female reproductive system that serves as an incubator for nesting, dividing and growing the fertilized egg, forming the child and bringing it up until it is able to live separately from its mother.

The upper part of the uterus is called the body of the uterus, and the lower part is called the cervix, which connects the uterus to the vagina (it should be noted that the term Uterine Cancer refers to cancer in the body of the uterus, as cervical cancer is a separate type of cancer).

Cervical cancer
We notice the spread of cancer to include the uterus and cervix, and this happens in the event of neglect of women and failure to conduct the necessary periodic examinations.

The endometrium is the inner layer of the uterus that changes in thickness during the menstrual cycle.

Estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in case of pregnancy. If fertilization and pregnancy do not occur, the body produces less estrogen and more progesterone, which is a different hormone in function. When this happens, the lining of the uterus sheds and scrapes, and this is what happens in menstrual cycles.

The uterine cycle, which lasts 28 days, continues until pregnancy occurs, so the nature of the uterus changes and prepares to be able to fulfill the various requirements of the fertilized egg.

Are endometrium uterus tumor and uterine cancer the same?

Uterine cancer can refer to endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma, or other rare forms of cancer that originate in the uterus.

Many people consider the terms “endometrial cancer” and “uterine cancer” to be the same thing, because endometrial cancers are more common than other cancers that originate in the uterus.

Causes of cervical cancer and its risk factors

Researchers are not sure of the exact cause of uterine cancer. For some reason, changes occur in the cells of the uterus and the mutant cells grow and multiply out of control, forming a mass called a polyp.

There are many risk factors for uterine cancer, many of which are related to the balance between estrogen and progesterone. Exposure to estrogen without the opposite of progesterone and everything that leads to this increases the risk of uterine tumor.

Cancer risk factors include:

  • Age: As women get older, the risk of developing uterine cancer increases. Most uterine cancers arise after the age of fifty.
  • Lifestyle and diet: A diet rich in animal fats can increase the risk of several types of cancer, including endometrial cancer. Fatty foods are also rich in calories, which can lead to obesity as being overweight is an important risk factor for uterine cancer.
  • Family history: some parents pass on genetic mutations (changes) for colorectal cancer Hereditary non-polyposis (HNPCC). This inherited condition increases your risk of developing a range of cancers, including endometrial cancer.
  • Diabetes: This disease is often associated with obesity (which in turn increases the incidence of cancer), but some studies indicate a direct relationship between diabetes and uterine cancer.
  • Obesity (increase in body weight): Some hormones are converted to estrogen by adipose tissue, which increases the risk of uterine cancer, meaning that the greater the amount of adipose tissue, the greater the changes in the balance of hormones in the body.
  • Ovarian diseases: Women with certain ovarian tumors have high levels of estrogen and low levels of progesterone. These hormonal changes can cause an increased risk of uterine cancer.
  • Early menstruation: If you start menstruating before the age of 12, the risk of uterine cancer may increase, because the uterus has been exposed to estrogen for many years.
  • Late menopause: Similarly, if menopause occurs after the age of 50, the risks also increase, as the uterus is exposed to estrogen for a longer period.
  • Long menstrual period: The number of years of menstruation may be more important than your age when your period began or ended.
  • Not pregnant: Women who are not pregnant are at greater risk due to increased exposure to estrogen

Treatments for other conditions can also be among the important reasons that increase the incidence of uterine cancer. Among these treatments, we mention:

  • Radiation therapy to the pelvis (between the abdomen and the legs): Radiation therapy to treat other cancers can damage the DNA of cells. This damage may increase the risk of developing a second type of cancer.
  • Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT): Some people receive estrogen therapy to help relieve symptoms of menopause. Women who take ERT without progesterone have a higher risk of developing uterine cancer.
  • Tamoxifen use: People may receive this drug to treat breast cancer. It works like estrogen in the uterus and can increase the risk of uterine cancer.
Image showing where early pelvic radiotherapy is directed to treat cancers in this area
Early pelvic radiotherapy to treat cancers in this area, but it also damages healthy cells

What are the symptoms of uterine cancer?

May be Uterine cancer symptoms Non-specific and similar to symptoms that appear due to other pathological conditions affecting the reproductive organs.

Symptoms of endometrial cancer or uterine sarcoma include:

  • Vaginal bleeding between periods in premenopausal women.
  • Vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women, even in a small amount.
  • Lower abdominal pain or pelvic cramps just below the abdomen.
  • White or clear vaginal discharge in postmenopausal women.
  • Prolonged, heavy or frequent vaginal bleeding in women over 40 years of age.

If you notice unusual pain or bleeding, you can: contact uswhere it will direct you Bimaristan center To the best doctors and they will provide an accurate diagnosis is important so that you can get the right treatment.

Early symptoms of uterine cancer

The symptoms of early uterine cancer are not specific enough, so the patient or her health care provider must pay attention to these symptoms and conduct the necessary investigations.

How is endometrial cancer diagnosed?

Your doctor may perform one or more tests to confirm a diagnosis of uterine cancer, including:

Laboratory Testing

The CA-125 assay is a blood draw in which we measure the amount of the CA-125 protein marker. A certain amount of CA-125 can indicate the presence of cancer in the body (especially in the uterus, ovaries, or fallopian tubes).

Imaging tests

A CT scan takes a series of detailed pictures of the inside of the body.

MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets to create images.

A transvaginal ultrasound inserts a special probe (a soft, round device) into the vagina to obtain images of the uterus.

Ultrasound image showing uterine cancer
Ultrasound images showing he had endometrial cancer

Other tests

Perform a surgical biopsy:
Endometrial biopsy is done with a thin, flexible tube through the cervix (opening of the vagina) and into the uterus, where the doctor removes a portion of the tissue lining the uterus.

A hysteroscope, which is a long, thin tube, is inserted through the vagina and cervix to reach the uterus. Equipped with a light and camera, this delicate instrument provides detailed images of the uterus.

Dilatation and Curettage (D&C):
It is a more complex procedure to remove uterine tissue, which takes place in the operating room.
Your doctor sends the sample to a lab where a pathologist examines the tissue for the presence of cancer.

How is endometrial cancer treated in Turkey?

Most people with endometrial cancer need surgery. Your management and treatment plan depends on the type of cancer and the patients' general health conditions. Other treatments you may take include:

  • Chemotherapy: which uses powerful drugs to destroy cancer cells.
  • Radiotherapy: which sends beams of radiation directed at destroying cancer cells.
  • Hormone therapy: which gives hormones that suppress the growth of cancer or prevents tumor-stimulating hormones from working.
  • Immunotherapy: which helps the immune system to fight cancer, and this treatment (in addition to targeted therapy) is the last resort in the event that other non-surgical treatments fail and surgery is not an option for any reason, as it has proven numerous studies Targeted treatment in these patients has resulted in improvement.
  • Targeted therapy: which uses drugs to target specific cancer cells to stop them from multiplying.
A radiograph showing the location of the radiation focus for the treatment of uterine cancer
Uterine cancer treatment with radiotherapy

Researchers continue to study more ways to treat endometrial cancer.

What type of endometrial cancer surgery may be performed on the patient?

Surgery is usually the main treatment for endometrial cancer. There are three types of hysterectomy procedures:

  • Total transabdominal hysterectomy: The surgeon makes an incision (cut) in the abdomen to access and remove the uterus.
  • Vaginal hysterectomy: The surgeon removes the uterus through the vagina.
  • Radical hysterectomy: If cancer has spread to the cervix, you may need a radical hysterectomy. The surgeon removes the uterus and the tissues adjacent to the uterus. The surgeon also removes the upper part of the vagina next to the cervix.

During a hysterectomy, surgeons often perform two other procedures as well:

  • Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) to remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes: Most people need this extra step to make sure all cancers are removed.
  • Lymph nodes are removed and sent for histopathology to see if the cancer has spread.

How is uterine sarcoma treated in Turkey?

Often, surgeons use a single procedure to diagnose, stage (describe severity), and treat uterine sarcoma.
Treatment Options Like those for endometrial cancer, most women undergo a hysterectomy, plus a BSO to remove the ovaries and fallopian tubes.

Can endometrial cancer be prevented?

Most of the time, you can't prevent uterine cancer. But you can take steps to reduce your risk:

  • Diabetes control.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Change your lifestyle, eat well, get enough sleep, and exercise.
  • Stay away from smoking.
  • In the event that the patient is a high-risk patient, she must see the doctor periodically.

In the end, we find that endometrial cancer is one of the most common types of cancers that affect the reproductive system of women, and it can be treated surgically or chemically, especially if it is diagnosed early, and a woman must take care of her health and stay away from a bad lifestyle to protect herself and those around her.


Frequently Asked Questions

The National Cancer Institute reports that the five-year survival rate for endometrial cancer is 81%, meaning that 81% of people diagnosed with the disease are still alive after five years. The rate is higher when the cancer is localized and has not spread. outside the womb.
The survival rate may be as high as 95%, and treatments continue to improve, along with survival rates.

A Pap test (Pap smear) cannot detect or diagnose uterine cancer, because as mentioned, uterine cancer is different from cervical cancer and its location is different.

Many people with uterine cancer need to have their ovaries removed, but removing your ovaries means you'll go through menopause. If you're under 45 and you're premenopausal, talk to your care team to see if you can keep your ovaries.

No, there is no regular screening tool, and health care providers usually do not recommend regular testing for asymptomatic women. They may do so for women who are at higher risk.
If you're at high risk, talk to your doctor about regular screenings for uterine cancer.

If you are considering estrogen replacement therapy, the patient's doctor should be consulted to see if she is at risk of developing uterine cancer as a result of the treatment, if not, no problem.

 Side effects of uterine cancer surgery include:

  • Infertility, the inability to become pregnant.
  • Menopause (if you're perimenopausal) and its symptoms, including vaginal dryness and night sweats.

If the condition is neglected and the appropriate treatment and lifestyle changes are not received, cancer can spread to the cervix, vagina, and even distant organs (although most diagnosed uterine cancers are of the first type, which is less common).

Fibroids and uterine cancer are different, and uterine fibroids are non-cancerous (benign) and do not increase the risk of uterine cancer.

In the absence of complete excision or the presence of several risk factors, yes, uterine cancer can recur.

Uterine enlargement is often a symptom of uterine cancer, but the most common cause of uterine enlargement is uterine fibroids.

Uterine cancer can spread over a long period of time, although it often spreads slowly.

It usually spreads to nearby organs such as the vagina, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and it can also spread to the bladder or rectum.

If you are planning for treatment in Turkey
you can talk to us here.

If you are planning for treatment in Turkey
you can talk to us here.