Leukemia: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment in Turkey

Leukemia: causes, symptoms and treatment

Called blood cancer (leukemia) is among the most common cancerous diseases in humans, its treatment requires careful medical follow-up and procedures. Learn more details about this cancer, the medical procedures followed with the best hospitals in Turkey that provide this.

What is blood cancer (leukemia or leukemia)?

 Leukemia is a disease of white blood cells, which forms in the tissues responsible for the production of these cells (bone marrow and lymphatic system). This tissue begins to produce abnormal white blood cells, which divide very quickly and compete with other normal, healthy tissues and prevent them from performing their vital functions properly.

Symptoms of blood cancer (leukemia)

Symptoms vary according to the type of leukemia, the most prominent of which are:

  • Fever . Chronic fatigue and tiredness
  • Frequent infections and infections
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Enlarged lymph nodes, liver or spleen
  • bleeding
  • Shortness of breath during physical exertion
  • Excessive sweating, especially at night
  • Allergy and pain in the bones

Causes of blood cancer (leukemia)

Until now There is no clear study It shows the main causes of leukemia or what is known as leukemia, and it is likely that this disease results from a combination of many factors, including:

  • People who have had some other cancers treated with chemotherapy or radiation are more likely to develop leukemia.
  • The occurrence of a genetic mutation: For example, Down syndrome (Down syndrome) increases the risk of developing it.
  • People who have previously been exposed to very high levels of radiation or certain types of chemicals such as benzene used in the chemical industry and in cigarette smoke.
  •  Taking certain types of chemical medicines (such as etoposide) and medicines known as (alkaloids).
  •  The presence of defects in other chronic lymphocytes

leukemia diagnosis

Leukemia diagnostic methods include:

  • Laboratory tests and tests: Complete blood count (CBC), kidney and liver function test, and uric acid level test.
  • bone marrow biopsy It is the most common test to determine the type of leukemia.
  • Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) (one way to look for cancer cells in the spinal fluid)
  • Cytological examination (Cellological lab checks the chromosomes in blood cells to determine if there are any genetic problems.
  • Molecular Diagnostics: (PCR. Polymerase Chain Reaction Measurement)

types of leukemia

acute leukemia

The growth of this type of cancer is increasing very rapidly. In this type, the bone marrow begins to produce large numbers of immature white blood cells that enter the bloodstream, called blastocysts. These immature cells quickly compete with normal cells in the bloodstream, and do not do their job to fight infection or stop bleeding, and so may cause anemia.

The most common types of acute leukemia are:

  • ALL: acute lymphocytic leukemia
  • AML: acute myeloid leukemia

chronic leukemia

It develops slowly and becomes progressively more serious, as it takes a long time for symptoms to appear. There are cases where chronic leukemia is detected (through routine screening) before any symptoms appear.

 Types of chronic leukemia:

  • Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

leukemia stages

The stages of leukemia are classified according to its type:

Stages of acute myeloid leukemia

  1. stage of untreated cancer

Leukemia is diagnosed at a late stage and only its symptoms are treated. At this stage, the complete blood count is abnormal, and the patient often feels symptoms of cancer.

  1. remission phase (after cancer treatment)

The complete blood count is normal, and there are fewer than 5% cancerous cells in the bone marrow.

  1. stage of recurrent leukemia

At this stage, the cancer has returned, either in the blood or in the bone marrow.

Stages of chronic myeloid leukemia

Cancer grows slowly, a large amount of white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, and abnormal white blood cells increase and begin to crowd out and outnumber all healthy blood cells. Stages of adult chronic myeloid leukemia:

  1. chronic phase

There is less than 10% of cancerous tissue in the blood and marrow, and cancer patients have mild symptoms such as fatigue and other symptoms. Patients usually respond well to treatment at this stage.

  1. accelerated phase

There are 10-19% cancerous cells in the blood and bone marrow, with the patient developing more symptoms.

  1. The blastocyst or blast phase

And the most dangerous stage, where 20% or more cancer cells are present in the blood and marrow, and this stage is known as blast crisis, the patient shows several symptoms, such as: fever, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight, and swollen spleen.

Stages of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

This type of cancer arises in immature white blood cells, and is more prevalent in children than adults. Its stages are classified in children according to the degree of risk as follows:

  1. Low-risk stage: It includes children between the ages of one to nine years and who have less than 50,000 white blood cells.
  2. The high-risk stage: includes children 10 years of age and older who have a white blood cell count of more than 50,000.

Stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  1. Stage 0 (less severe)

This stage of cancer involves a large number of abnormal lymphocytes in the patient's blood.

  1. The first stage

At this stage, the lymph nodes are swollen, and there is a large number of abnormal lymphoid tissues.

  1. The second phase

This stage is characterized by enlarged lymph nodes as well as an enlarged spleen or liver.

  1. third level

At this stage, other elements of the blood are affected, as the number of lymphocytes is much greater than the red blood cells, which causes patients in this stage to suffer from anemia.

  1. Fourth stage (most dangerous)

This stage is characterized by the presence of a very large number of lymph tissue, and a lack of platelets that are necessary for normal clotting in the blood, and this makes the blood unable to clot normally.

leukemia treatment

Treatment is usually done by hematologists and oncologists. It depends on the type and stage of cancer for each patient. Treatment for leukemia often includes several procedures, including:

Chemotherapy Chemotherapy

Depending on the type of cancer, medications are used to kill leukemia cells. One medication or a combination of different medications may be taken according to the condition diagnosed by the doctor.


By using high-energy radiation to destroy infected leukemia cells and prevent their growth, the radiation can be applied to a specific area or to the entire body.

Stem Cells Transplantation or Bone marrow transplant Bone Marrow Transplantation

And that is to replace the affected bone marrow with healthy bone marrow, either from the patient himself (called an autologous transplant) or from a donor.

Biological or immunotherapy

It helps the immune system recognize and attack cancerous tissue.

you can us To connect you with the best doctors specializing in the treatment of blood cancers

If you are interested in traveling to Turkey for treatment, do not hesitate to contact us to get the following advantages:

  • The cancer patient will have free medical support on the phone, and an official who will track their health condition, and listen to their inquiries.
  • Our medical representative communicates with specialized doctors and hospitals in Turkey to find the best possible treatments for their health condition at the lowest cost.
  • We communicate with the Turkish embassy in the patient's country to help him obtain an entry visa to Turkey to receive treatment and arrange his treatment program for free.
  • We translate medical documents and reports into Turkish for free on their behalf.
  • We monitor all stages of cancer patient’s treatment free of charge to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment provided to them.
  • We reserve the place of residence for them and their escorts for treatment in Turkey, and we provide transportation services for free.

For more details and information, do not hesitate to contact us Bimaristan doctors from here..

Common Questions

Maybe Leukemia is dangerousIf it is not treated immediately after its diagnosis, the treatment of leukemia varies from one patient to another, based on several factors, including: age, the patient’s health in general, the type and degree of cancer and the extent of its spread to other places.

Different recovery rate From one patient to another, depending on the quality and quality of the health care provided to him, and several other environmental factors. The cure rate for leukemia is calculated by calculating the five-year survival rates, meaning calculating the percentage of patients who survive five years after their diagnosis. These rates vary between children and adults, with five-year survival rates for those diagnosed with acute leukemia ranging from 60-70% and possibly more, taking into account other individual and environmental factors.

Different Duration of treatment for leukemia in children Depending on the child's condition, it may range from two to three years, and this treatment period includes 3 main stages, where the treatment is highly intensive in the first months.

Minimum Price: 85,000 USD

Maximum Price: 89,000 USD

The following are the most famous hospitals and medical centers specializing in the treatment of leukemia in Turkey:

  1. Anadolu Medical Center
  2. Hisar Intercontinental Hospital
  3. Medipol Mega Hospital
  4. Acıbadem Taksim Hospital

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