Called blood cancer (leukemia) is among the most common cancerous diseases in humans, its treatment requires careful medical follow-up and procedures. Learn more details about this cancer, the medical procedures followed with the best hospitals in Turkey that provide this.
What is blood cancer (leukemia or leukemia)?
Leukemia is a disease of white blood cells, which forms in the tissues responsible for the production of these cells (bone marrow and lymphatic system). This tissue begins to produce abnormal white blood cells, which divide very quickly and compete with other normal, healthy tissues and prevent them from performing their vital functions properly.
Symptoms of blood cancer (leukemia)
Symptoms vary according to the type of leukemia, the most prominent of which are:
- Fever . Chronic fatigue and tiredness
- Frequent infections and infections
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Enlarged lymph nodes, liver or spleen
- Shortness of breath during physical exertion
- Excessive sweating, especially at night
- Allergy and pain in the bones
Causes of blood cancer (leukemia)
Until now There is no clear study It shows the main causes of leukemia or what is known as leukemia, and it is likely that this disease results from a combination of many factors, including:
- People who have had some other cancers treated with chemotherapy or radiation are more likely to develop leukemia.
- The occurrence of a genetic mutation: For example, Down syndrome (Down syndrome) increases the risk of developing it.
- People who have previously been exposed to very high levels of radiation or certain types of chemicals such as benzene used in the chemical industry and in cigarette smoke.
- Taking certain types of chemical medicines (such as etoposide) and medicines known as (alkaloids).
- The presence of defects in other chronic lymphocytes
Leukemia diagnostic methods include:
- Laboratory tests and tests: Complete blood count (CBC), kidney and liver function test, and uric acid level test.
- bone marrow biopsy It is the most common test to determine the type of leukemia.
- Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) (one way to look for cancer cells in the spinal fluid)
- Cytological examination (Cellological lab checks the chromosomes in blood cells to determine if there are any genetic problems.
- Molecular Diagnostics: (PCR. Polymerase Chain Reaction Measurement)
types of leukemia
The growth of this type of cancer is increasing very rapidly. In this type, the bone marrow begins to produce large numbers of immature white blood cells that enter the bloodstream, called blastocysts. These immature cells quickly compete with normal cells in the bloodstream, and do not do their job to fight infection or stop bleeding, and so may cause anemia.
The most common types of acute leukemia are:
- ALL: acute lymphocytic leukemia
- AML: acute myeloid leukemia
It develops slowly and becomes progressively more serious, as it takes a long time for symptoms to appear. There are cases where chronic leukemia is detected (through routine screening) before any symptoms appear.
Types of chronic leukemia:
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
- Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
The stages of leukemia are classified according to its type:
Stages of acute myeloid leukemia
stage of untreated cancer
Leukemia is diagnosed at a late stage and only its symptoms are treated. At this stage, the complete blood count is abnormal, and the patient often feels symptoms of cancer.
remission phase (after cancer treatment)
The complete blood count is normal, and there are fewer than 5% cancerous cells in the bone marrow.
stage of recurrent leukemia
At this stage, the cancer has returned, either in the blood or in the bone marrow.
Stages of chronic myeloid leukemia
Cancer grows slowly, a large amount of white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, and abnormal white blood cells increase and begin to crowd out and outnumber all healthy blood cells. Stages of adult chronic myeloid leukemia:
There is less than 10% of cancerous tissue in the blood and marrow, and cancer patients have mild symptoms such as fatigue and other symptoms. Patients usually respond well to treatment at this stage.
There are 10-19% cancerous cells in the blood and bone marrow, with the patient developing more symptoms.
The blastocyst or blast phase
And the most dangerous stage, where 20% or more cancer cells are present in the blood and marrow, and this stage is known as blast crisis, the patient shows several symptoms, such as: fever, fatigue, loss of appetite and weight, and swollen spleen.
Stages of acute lymphoblastic leukemia
This type of cancer arises in immature white blood cells, and is more prevalent in children than adults. Its stages are classified in children according to the degree of risk as follows:
- Low-risk stage: It includes children between the ages of one to nine years and who have less than 50,000 white blood cells.
- The high-risk stage: includes children 10 years of age and older who have a white blood cell count of more than 50,000.
Stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Stage 0 (less severe)
This stage of cancer involves a large number of abnormal lymphocytes in the patient's blood.
The first stage
At this stage, the lymph nodes are swollen, and there is a large number of abnormal lymphoid tissues.
The second phase
This stage is characterized by enlarged lymph nodes as well as an enlarged spleen or liver.
At this stage, other elements of the blood are affected, as the number of lymphocytes is much greater than the red blood cells, which causes patients in this stage to suffer from anemia.
Fourth stage (most dangerous)
This stage is characterized by the presence of a very large number of lymph tissue, and a lack of platelets that are necessary for normal clotting in the blood, and this makes the blood unable to clot normally.
Treatment is usually done by hematologists and oncologists. It depends on the type and stage of cancer for each patient. Treatment for leukemia often includes several procedures, including:
Depending on the type of cancer, medications are used to kill leukemia cells. One medication or a combination of different medications may be taken according to the condition diagnosed by the doctor.
By using high-energy radiation to destroy infected leukemia cells and prevent their growth, the radiation can be applied to a specific area or to the entire body.
Stem Cells Transplantation or Bone marrow transplant Bone Marrow Transplantation
And that is to replace the affected bone marrow with healthy bone marrow, either from the patient himself (called an autologous transplant) or from a donor.
It helps the immune system recognize and attack cancerous tissue.
you can us To connect you with the best doctors specializing in the treatment of blood cancers
If you are interested in traveling to Turkey for treatment, do not hesitate to contact us to get the following advantages:
- The cancer patient will have free medical support on the phone, and an official who will track their health condition, and listen to their inquiries.
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