Cover image for the article Treating Multiple Sclerosis

Learn about the latest MS treatment technologies

Multiple sclerosis treatment aims to control the symptoms of the disease because the body attacks the central nervous system, and there is no cure yet for multiple sclerosis.

To date, no definitive treatment has been found for MS. The basic principle in treating multiple sclerosis is to relieve the patient's symptoms and improve his life. (Sclerosis does not threaten the patient's life, and if he adheres to the prescribed treatment, the patient will live an everyday life).

To ensure an everyday life for the patient, many drugs and other ways have been discovered to treat multiple sclerosis. Follow along with us in this article to learn about all various sclerosis medications and the latest technologies to treat them.

Introduction to the treatment of multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease, meaning that the immune system that protects the body treats its components as a foreign bodies and starts attacking them.

In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the sheath of nerve fibers (the myelin sheath) that surrounds the nerve fibers and provides them with insulation and transmission speed (as the principle of electrical wires).

The destruction of this sheath results in problems in transmitting nerve orders from the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to the various organs of the body through the nerves. Symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

Image showing damage to the nerve fiber sheath in multiple sclerosis
Destruction of nerve fiber sheaths in multiple sclerosis

The principle of multiple sclerosis treatment depends mainly on curbing the immune system's attack and preventing it from destroying the nerve fiber sheaths. This is often done by using immunosuppressants to treat multiple sclerosis.

There are many therapeutic methods for sclerosis, which we will discuss in detail in this article. Follow us -We are Bimaristan Medical Center– To learn about the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Treatment of acute multiple sclerosis

Some people with multiple sclerosis report to the hospital with symptoms of an acute attack of numerous sclerosis cases, such as loss of vision, inability to walk, and muscle spasms.

In this case, two methods of treatment can be offered:

corticosteroids

The patient is given cortisone to treat multiple acute sclerosis to calm the attack and relieve symptoms. Still, it does not help reduce seizures and relapses.

Plasmapheresis

It is used if the patient does not benefit from cortisone in treating multiple acute sclerosis, as the blood is drawn into a machine that purifies the blood from antibodies attacking the nervous system. Then the blood is returned to the patient’s body (as the principle of dialysis).

Symptomatic multiple sclerosis treatment

The purpose of treatment here is to control the symptoms of multiple sclerosis and not to treat sclerosis itself, as we will mention the treatment of each sign as follows:

  • Weakness and fatigue: Amantadine is prescribed for patients with multiple sclerosis who feel tired permanently, in addition to the doctor’s recommendation to rest.
  • Vision problems and visual impairment: These symptoms usually accompany an acute attack, and the use of corticosteroids helps to reduce its severity. For the treatment of involuntary eye movements in multiple sclerosis, gabapentin may be helpful in treatment.
  • Muscle spasticity and movement problems: It is recommended to start with: PhysiotherapyIn the event that the muscle spasm does not improve, we may resort to using a muscle relaxant, and an example of this drug is baclofen.
  • Pain: There are two types of pain in patients with multiple sclerosis, the pain of nervous origin and pain of muscular origin. They are treated with strong painkillers if the patient’s pain is severe. The suggested drugs here are gabapentin and carbamazepine.
  • Psychological problems: These problems are treated in multiple sclerosis and outside it, as antidepressants and sedatives are prescribed for those suffering from depression and anxiety.
  • Treatment of sexual problems in multiple sclerosis: (sclerosis and sexual intercourse) Treatment here uses drugs that help erection and increase desire, such as sildenafil (MS disease and marriage).
  • Neurogenic bladder treatment In Neurological Sclerosis: Patients' neurogenic bladder is treated in several ways, depending on its type. Click here to learn about neurogenic bladder and its treatment methods (multiple sclerosis is one of the causes of the neurogenic bladder).
  • Treatment of constipation in patients with multiple sclerosis: using laxative suppositories or enemas to soften the stool and facilitate its exit and relieve the patient of multiple sclerosis from constipation.

Treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using immunomodulating therapy

The drugs used in treating multiple sclerosis are called drugs that modify the development or course of the disease. The principle of drugs that change the course of the disease is based on suppressing the immune system that causes multiple sclerosis (by attacking the nervous system) from producing antibodies or disrupting their work, thus ensuring a period of safety from symptoms: longer duration or milder symptoms of MS.

Medications used to treat relapsing-remitting (relapsing) MS (immunomodulators in MS):

interferon beta

Best medicine for multiple sclerosis. Given by intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, treatment depends on interferon beta to reduce the occurrence of multiple sclerosis attacks and slow the progression of the disease.

Interferon beta for the treatment of multiple sclerosis
Interferon beta for the treatment of multiple sclerosis

S1P receptor modulators

These receptors work on communication and integration between the parts of the immune system, so targeting them by drugs reduces the attack of antibodies to the sheaths of nerve fibers and thus relieves the symptoms of multiple sclerosis and is characterized by being taken orally. These drugs include:

  • siponimod
  • fingolimod
  • ozanimod

Monoclonal Antibodies

These drugs target specific receptors precisely, designed for a particular purpose. In the case of multiple sclerosis, they are predominantly immunosuppressive, including:

  • Intravenous natalizumab
  • Intravenous ocrelizumab
  • alemtuzumab;

other immunomodulators

All of these drugs neutralize the immune system and prevent it from attacking the nervous system, including:

  • Galatiramer is injected subcutaneously
  • mitoxantrone
  • Oral teriflunomide
  • Oral dimethyl fumarate
  • Oral monomethyl fumarate
  • cladribine

Treatment of severe multiple sclerosis

Severe multiple sclerosis (in which attacks are robust and do not respond to essential known treatments) is treated with a stronger and more aggressive treatment plan than treatment in the typical case of multiple sclerosis (this plan ensures disease control and takes place within a hospital under the supervision of specialists and doctors) and is used for this:

  • Cyclophosphamide: (an immunosuppressant) is given in a high dose, followed by galatiramer (as mentioned above) to stabilize the patient's condition.
  • Mitoxantrone: an immunomodulator (already mentioned) used in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and advanced secondary sclerosis. It is not used in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis

In progressive multiple sclerosis, symptoms are continuous without periods of remission or temporary recovery from the disease. The severity of these symptoms increases day by day and over time. Multiple sclerosis is of two types; Primary (and here the disease begins in an advanced and progressive manner since the first presentation) and secondary (the numerous sclerosis is from the beginning of the recurrent remitting type, then the remission stops and begins to progress more in the disease).

Treatment of primary progressive multiple sclerosis

Few drugs treat primary progressive MS, but the best cure for primary advanced MS is ocrelizumab It is a monoclonal antibody drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

Several immunomodulating drugs are used in the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, including:

  • siponimod
  • cladribine
  • mitoxantrone

Multiple sclerosis treatment through stem cell transplantation in Turkey

It is the latest in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have shown the effectiveness of this treatment in delaying the progression of the disease and improving its symptoms (transfusion of stem cells affects symptoms and ensures that the patient's condition does not deteriorate). Contact us For more information about treating multiple sclerosis through stem cell transplantation in Turkey and the most common and modern therapies.

Image showing how to treat multiple sclerosis through stem cell transfer
Treatment of multiple sclerosis through stem cell transplantation

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease, so treatment for patients with this disease is long-term (for years or life), and only a few patients can complete their lives without treatment for sclerosis, and their condition is mainly mild.


Sources:

  1. Medscape
  2. NHS
  3. WebMD

Frequently Asked Questions:

Unfortunately, it is not possible at present to completely cure multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, people who take treatment for sclerosis live closer to normal, as the medicine controls the disease, stops its development, and treats its symptoms.

The symptoms of MS are alarming to the patient and may hinder him from living his daily life normally. However, it was found that the average age of people with multiple sclerosis is slightly less (5-10 years) than ordinary people, meaning that it is not a life-threatening disease. Still, some complications leading to death may develop in severe multiple sclerosis, such as suffocation due to difficulty swallowing.

If you are planning for treatment in Turkey
you can talk to us here.

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