Bone cancer arises from the malignant proliferation of bone cells themselves and is classified into several types. In the last decade, Turkey has developed in the field of cancer treatment, where bone cancer is treated with the latest methods.
An overview of bone cancer
Bones are a common focus for metastases that arise from other cancers from different parts of the body. The most common of these cancers are: Breast cancer orLung Cancer In addition for prostate cancer.
In some cases, bone cancer arises directly at the expense of the bone cells themselves and is known as primary bone cancer. Primary bone cancer can affect all bones of the body, but it is seen in most cases in the pelvic bones and the long bones of the upper or lower extremities.
Primary bone cancer is a relatively rare cancer, is not limited to a specific age group and tends to be more common in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Quick overview of osteoblasts
In order to understand the types of cancer that affect the bones, it is necessary to know the types of normal cells present in the bones, which are:
- osteoblasts: Produces collagen and proteins needed for bone growth and strength.
- osteoclasts: Its function lies in the bone resorption and the dissolution of calcium from the bones when the calcium concentration in the blood is low.
- osteocytesThe function of osteoblasts is to transmit the signals necessary for building or resorption of bone. When osteoblasts are needed, osteoblasts send a signal to them, and when bone resorption is needed, the signal is sent to osteoclasts.
- osteoprogenitors: divides to give cells that differentiate into one of the cells mentioned above.
What are the types of bone cancer?
Primary bone cancer has been classified into several types according to the type of bone cells from which bone cancer arose. The most important and common types of bone cancer are:
- Osteosarcoma OsteosarcomaOsteosarcoma: The most common type of bone cancer, sarcoma arises at the expense of osteoblasts. Sarcomas often affect the end of long bones, especially the shinbones. Osteosarcomas are most commonly seen in children and adolescents from 10 to 20 years of age.
- ChondrosarcomaThe second most common type of bone cancer after osteosarcoma, this cancer arises at the expense of chondrocytes in the thigh bone, arm, pelvis, and less commonly the ribs. This type rarely affects the age group under 21 years and is more seen in adults over the age of 30 Up to 70 years, this pattern is considered the best prognostic of osteosarcoma.
- Ewing sarcomaA rare type of bone cancer, this type is more commonly seen in the pelvic bones and the long bones of the lower extremities, and less commonly the ribs in the chest and may affect any bone in the body, Ewing's cancer may arise in some cases from the soft tissue around the bones such as cartilage tissue or muscle tissue.
Bone cancer symptoms
- Bone pain (the most common symptom)
- General symptoms of cancer such as loss of appetite and weight loss
- Hot swelling may be observed on the surface of the skin
- Recurrent bone fractures without a satisfactory reason (a mild fall that breaks the bone)
- Difficulty moving and doing normal activities
- General fatigue and fever
- Bone cancer may be asymptomatic for some
How is bone cancer diagnosed?
When suspected of having a type of bone cancer, the doctor orders some imaging studies, such as:
- Bone scan
- PET scan
Cancer is confirmed and a definitive diagnosis is made by performing a bone biopsy and viewing the cancer cells under a microscope.
Bone cancer treatment methods in Turkey
In the last decade, Turkey has developed in the field of cancer treatment of all kinds, until Turkey has become one of the leading countries in the medical treatment of malignant tumors, in addition to providing specialized centers for the treatment of various types of cancer.
Treatment options for bone cancer depend on the type of cancer, its size, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body or not. Of course, the earlier bone cancer is diagnosed, the greater the chances of successful treatment and recovery from the cancer.
The goal of the surgery is to completely remove the tumor along with a safe margin of healthy tissue around the tumor. The bone can be repaired or re-manufactured through artificial bone grafts or by natural grafts taken from other parts of the body.
In some cases, if a thick tumor spreads around the bones, a procedure is performed amputation of the affected limb, but the need for an amputation has recently decreased.
Surgery may be repeated if the tumor is not completely removed in order to remove the remainder of the tumor.
If bone cancer has metastasized to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or liver, surgery is often ineffective and unnecessary. In this case, palliative treatment options should be discussed.
A high beam of radiation directed by modern devices is directed towards the tumor in order to kill cancer cells and reduce the size of the tumor. Radiation therapy may be used before surgery in order to reduce the size of bone cancer as much as possible in order to completely eradicate it during surgery.
Radiation therapy may also be used in patients who cannot undergo surgery to remove the tumor.
Radiation therapy is also used after the cancer has been surgically removed to kill the remaining cancer cells, if present. Read more about Radiotherapy.
Some side effects of radiotherapy:
- Redness and inflammation of the skin
- Temporary hair loss
- Joint and muscle stiffness
- May affect fertility and cause infertility
- Cancer developing elsewhere in the body
This type of treatment depends on taking medications either by mouth or by injecting drugs into a vein. These drugs kill bone cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be combined with surgery and radiotherapy together.
In fact, it is effective Chemotherapy It largely depends on the type of cancer. In the case of chondrosarcoma, chemotherapy is less effective, while chemotherapy is effective and essential in the treatment of osteosarcoma and Ewing's carcinoma.
يُمكن أيضاً أن يتم اللجوء للعلاج الكيميائي في تدبير النقائل السرطانية، تعرف أكثر عن Chemotherapy in Turkey.
Chemotherapy for cancer patients carries side effects, including:
- hair loss
- Weakened immunity and increased susceptibility to infections
- Nausea, vomiting and constipation
Targeted therapy drugs are drugs that help treat bone cancer. These drugs work by targeting the genes, proteins, or blood vessels that feed cancer and are responsible for the growth of cancer cells, thereby impairing the growth and spread of bone cancer.
غالباً يتم مشاركة أدوية العلاج الهدفي مع العلاج الكيميائي أثناء علاج السرطان. يُطلق على هذه الادويه المستخدمة في علاج سرطان العظم مثبطات الكيناز ومن الأمثلة عنها: Imatinib، Sunitinib.
Risk factors for bone cancer
- A family history of cancer or rare genetic syndromes of cancer
- Exposure to radiation increases the risk of developing cancer cells, for example, during radiotherapy of breast cancer, malignancy can develop elsewhere in the body, such as bone cancer.
- Paget disease of bone. This disease causes abnormal, weak bone tissue that breaks easily. The risk of developing bone cancer is low, but it is small.
- Procedure Bone marrow transplant سابقاً من أجل علاج مُشكلة دموية.
- الإصابة ب أورام سليمة في العظام قد تحمل خطر التحول لخباثة.
Bone cancer statistics
According for studies Osteosarcoma is relatively rare with fewer than 1% cancers, and osteosarcoma ranks first among other bone cancers.
But bone metastases are common, especially from breast cancer, where it forms Breast cancer Cancer is the most prevalent in females, as an entire month of each year has been devoted to raising awareness about the importance of early detection of breast cancer in women.