}January 7, 2022
jDr.. Muhannad Al-Khatib

Malignant laryngeal cancer

}January 7, 2022
jDr.. Muhannad Al-Khatib

Malignant laryngeal cancer

Table of Contents

    Symptoms of malignant laryngeal cancer include voice changes, such as hoarseness, a sore throat or a cough that doesn't go away. Treatment in Turkey may include surgery to remove part or all of the larynx, which is called a laryngectomy.
    You can reduce your risk of throat cancer by avoiding smoking.

    Malignant laryngeal cancer

    Malignant laryngeal cancer

    What is malignant laryngeal cancer?

    Malignant laryngeal cancer is cancer of the larynx, which is part of the throat.
    Cancer occurs when certain cells grow uncontrollably.
    When cells multiply, they invade and damage the body, which is what happens in laryngeal cancer, when these cancerous (malignant) cells begin to multiply randomly in the larynx (voice box).

    How common is malignant laryngeal cancer?

    Laryngeal cancer is part of the group of head and neck cancers.
    Each year, approximately 2.7 out of every 100,000 are diagnosed while 1.6 out of every 100,000 die each year.

    What is the larynx?

    The larynx is in your throat. Also known as the sound box.
    The larynx helps us speak, breathe, and swallow.
    The vocal cords are also part of the larynx.

    The larynx is made mostly of cartilage, a flexible tissue that makes a supportive framework.

    The larynx consists of three parts:

    • Supraglottis (upper): More than one in three laryngeal cancers (35%) start here.
    • epiglottis cancer (Middle segment): More than half of laryngeal cancers (60%) start here, and it includes Vocal cord cancer.
    • Subglottic (lower part): About 5% of laryngeal cancers - 1 in 20 - start here.
      Malignant supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma

      Malignant supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma

    What does the larynx do?

    The larynx helps us to:

    • Breathing: The vocal cords open to allow air to pass through.
    • Speaking: The vocal cords close. When air passes through the vocal cords, they vibrate, helping to form speech sounds.
    • Swallowing: The epiglottis (part of the epiglottis) falls over the larynx. This closes the airway and food passes into the esophagus.

    What are the causes or risk factors for throat cancer?

    Smoking or using other tobacco products greatly increases the risk of throat cancer.
    Drinking alcohol, especially a lot of it, also increases your risk.
    The use of alcohol and tobacco together increases the risk even more.

    Other causes or risk factors for laryngeal cancer include:

    • Age: Laryngeal cancer is more common in people 55 and older.
    • Gender: Men are more likely to develop this cancer, possibly because smoking and excessive alcohol consumption are more common in men.
    • History of head and neck cancer: About one in four (25%) people with head and neck cancer will develop it again.
    • Occupation: People who are exposed to certain substances at work are at greater risk.
      These materials include sulfuric acid mist, wood dust, nickel, asbestos or manufacturing mustard gas. People who work with machines are also at greater risk.

    Symptoms and causes

    What are the main causes of malignant laryngeal cancer?

    Researchers do not know Causes of throat cancer. But if you have risk factors such as tobacco or alcohol use, you have a higher chance of developing laryngeal cancer.

    Some types of human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease, can cause throat cancer.

    What are the symptoms of malignant laryngeal cancer in men and women?

    It is easy to confuse symptoms of laryngeal cancer with other conditions. If you experience these symptoms, talk to your doctor for an accurate diagnosis:

    • Sore throat or cough that does not go away.
    • Voice change, such as hoarseness, that does not improve after two weeks.
    • Pain or other difficulties when swallowing.
    • A lump in the neck or throat.
    • Hoarseness, difficulty making sounds.
    • ear pain;

    If you have these symptoms, seek medical attention immediately:

    • Difficulty breathing (dyspnea).
      respiratory system

      respiratory system

    • stridor, noisy, high-pitched breathing
    • Sensation of the skin, the feeling that there is something in your throat.
    • Coughing up blood (hemoptysis).

    Diagnostics and tests in Turkey

    How is malignant laryngeal cancer diagnosed in Turkey?

    Your doctor will ask you about the signs of laryngeal cancer with an examination. The doctor will perform a physical exam and examine your throat and neck.
    After the initial test, you'll likely need other tests to confirm the diagnosis.

    What other tests help diagnose malignant laryngeal cancer in Istanbul?

    Other diagnostic tests include:

    • Imaging tests: CT or MRI scans provide detailed pictures of the body.
      A chest X-ray can tell if the cancer has spread to the lungs.
    • Laryngoscopy: The doctor uses a thin, lighted tube called an endoscope to examine your throat.
    • positron emission tomography scan: During a PET scan, a radiologist injects a small, safe dose of radioactive material into your vein. This article highlights abnormal areas that function above normal.
      A PET scanner machine creates 3D images from the energy that the material gives off.
    • Biopsy: During a biopsy, the doctor removes a small piece of any abnormal tissue from the larynx for examination under a microscope.

    What are the stages of laryngeal or throat cancer?

    Part of the diagnosis is staging the cancer. Your care team will determine how severe the disease is — how far the tumor has grown, whether and where it has invaded the body.

    Throat cancer can sometimes invade the thyroid gland, esophagus, tongue, lungs, liver and bones. The stages of laryngeal cancer include:

    • Early laryngeal cancer: In stages 0, 1, and 2, the tumor is small. The cancer has not spread outside the larynx.
    • Advanced laryngeal cancer: In stages 3 and 4, the tumor has grown larger.
      Where the cancer has affected the vocal cords, invaded lymph nodes or other areas of the body.

    Management and treatment in Turkey

    Who helps in diagnosing and treating laryngeal cancer?

    The laryngeal tumor care team often consists of several providers from different areas:

    • Head and neck surgeons provide surgical care for tumors.
      CT scan showing malignant laryngeal carcinoma

      CT scan showing malignant laryngeal carcinoma

    • Radiation oncologists use radiotherapy to treat cancer.
    • Oncologists use medications, such as Chemotherapy, to treat cancer.
    • Ear, nose and throat specialists treat diseases of the head and neck.
    • Presents Dentists Oral surgeons will provide services such as x-rays and treatment of oral cancer.
    • Speech-language pathologists evaluate and treat speech, language, voice, cognitive, and swallowing disorders.
    • Dietitians help people find a nutritious diet based on their health, condition, illness or injury.
    • Psychiatrists can address concerns and provide information to patients and families.
      They also provide advice, referrals to local and national resources, information about support groups, and financial assistance information.
    • Primary care providers often oversee general medical care while treating a tumor.

    What is the treatment for malignant laryngeal cancer?

    includes Malignant laryngeal cancer treatment:

    • Radiation therapy: Radiation oncologists deliver high-energy beams of radiation to kill cancer cells.
      Radiation targets the tumor only to reduce damage to surrounding healthy tissue.
    • ChemotherapyOncologists use drugs to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells.
      People often receive chemotherapy intravenously (intravenously).
      Chemotherapy can cause side effects during treatment.
    • NSImmunotherapy for the treatment of malignant laryngeal cancerThis treatment uses your immune system, your body's natural defences, to help fight cancer.
      Immunotherapy is also called biological therapy.
    • Surgery: For early laryngeal cancer, surgery can remove the tumor while preserving the larynx (and the ability to speak and swallow).
      For advanced cancer, surgeons often need to perform a laryngectomy and remove the entire larynx.

    You may have more than one treatment. For example, people sometimes undergo chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells.

    What laryngeal tumor surgery procedures are available?

    Surgery removes the cancer. The goal of laryngeal cancer surgery is to remove the tumor while preserving its function.
    The surgeon may need to remove part or all of the larynx.

    Surgical procedures include:

    • Vocal cord resection: Part or all of the vocal cord is removed, usually through the mouth
    • supraglottic laryngectomy: resection of the laryngectomy over the glottis, either through the neck or through the mouth
    • Laryngectomy: It removes half of the larynx and preserves your voice.
    • Partial laryngectomy: Part of the larynx is removed to preserve your ability to speak.
    • Total laryngectomy: removes the entire larynx through the neck
    • Thyroidectomy: removes all or part of the thyroid gland.
    • Laser surgery: removal of the tumor in a bloodless procedure using a laser beam.

    How does the medical team discover the best treatment for malignant throat cancer?

    For early laryngeal cancer, your care team will likely recommend surgery or radiation therapy.
    Research has shown that both are effective.
    Your team will base the decision on several factors,

    including:

    • What treatment will preserve your voice and ability to swallow.
    • Your preferences, desires and ability to follow the treatment plan.
    • Your age.
    • Other cases you may have.
    • Demands on your voice, including for your job.
    • How does your voice sound?
    • If you smoke or not smoke.
    • Your ability to breathe.
    • Having someone support you.

    Methods of preventing malignant laryngeal cancer

    Can I prevent throat cancer?

    You cannot prevent all types of cancer. But you can reduce your risk of developing cancer, including laryngeal cancer.

    By following a healthy lifestyle:

    • Quit smoking and avoid tobacco products.
    • Limit alcohol consumption and get treatment for alcohol use disorder or alcoholism.
    • Follow a healthy diet.

    How do I know if I am at risk?

    If you have any of the risk factors for throat cancer — for example, if you smoke or have had head and neck cancer in the past — talk to your doctor.
    They can help you take steps to reduce your risk of cancer.

    Is there a test for laryngeal cancer?

    There is no regular screening test for laryngeal cancer. But talk to your health care provider if you have hoarseness, other voice changes, or a persistent cough.
    Early detection detects cancer early, when it is easier to treat.

    A future view of the treatment of malignant laryngeal tumor

    What happens after the treatment of malignant laryngeal cancer?

    After treatment, you'll continue to have follow-up appointments with your doctor to make sure you're recovering well. He will:

    • Treat any pain.
    • Helping you manage swallowing problems or mucositis (ulcers in the digestive tract).
    • Discuss your diet to make sure you are eating and swallowing.
    • Prescribe physical therapy for scars in your neck or difficulty opening your mouth.

    What is the outlook for people with laryngeal cancer?

    The outlook for people varies, depending on factors such as the stage of the cancer, your age and your general health. in general.
    Early laryngeal cancer has a better cure rate.
    Advanced cancer that has spread to other areas has a lower survival rate.

    But even advanced throat cancer can be cured. If it returns, it usually occurs within the first two or three years after treatment.
    After five years, there is a very low risk that the cancer will return.

    Adaptation after the operation

    How do I take care of myself if I have a complete laryngectomy?

    If you smoke, it is important to quit smoking.
    Do not smoke before or during treatment, and avoid smoking even after you have finished treatment.
    People who smoke after treatment have a higher chance of developing another type of cancer.
    But patients who stop smoking have a much lower risk of developing cancer.
    Smoking also prevents you from fully recovering, and may cause side effects that are worse from treatment.

    Will I get a stoma?

    stoma in the larynx

    stoma in the larynx

    If you have a complete laryngectomy, the surgeon will place a new airway in your throat called a stoma. The stoma helps you breathe. It may be permanent or temporary.

    You should take care of the stoma by:

    • Check it daily to make sure it is clean and free of mucus.
    • Clean the mucus from the stoma by coughing or using a saline spray and a cloth.
    • Keep them hydrated with a saline spray.
    • Clean the stoma area with mild soap and water.
    • Do not immerse the stoma in water.
    • Cover the stoma to keep out dust, using a scarf or a special ostomy cap. And keep it covered when shaving or while showering.

    Will I be able to use my voice after throat cancer treatment?

    If you've had a total laryngectomy (surgeons have removed your larynx), you'll need to learn a new way of speaking.
    A speech-language pathologist can help.

    How can I speak after a laryngectomy?

    Health care providers use three methods to help people learn how to speak after a laryngectomy:

    • Esophageal speech: It pushes air into the esophagus, which is the tube that carries food and liquid to the stomach.
      When you push air out, it passes through your throat. So you use the vibration you create to say the words.
      Esophageal speech requires extensive treatment to achieve good results.
    • artificial larynx (Electric larynx): You can hold this electronic device on your neck or cheek or insert it in your mouth to make a sound.
      The device creates a vibration that you can use to speak the words.
      No surgery is required and you can speak immediately.
      But the speech may sound mechanical. A speech pathologist helps you learn how to use it.
    • Tracheoesophageal puncture: The surgeon makes a hole in the throat, between the esophagus and the trachea.
      They put a prosthesis with a one-way valve into the opening.
      The valve opens when air passes through it. You push air from your lungs into your throat.
      When air reaches the esophagus, it produces vibrations that you can use to talk.
      You need to maintain and replace the prosthesis regularly. But it does create a smoother sound.

    How do I breathe after laryngectomy?

    After a laryngectomy, you breathe in by introducing air through an opening in your neck. Take care of the stoma to keep it moist and free of mucus. Be sure to protect the windpipe as well.

    After the surgery, you will be provided with a mini cap and filter (HME = heat and moisture exchange). This allows you to breathe in warm, humidified air using the strength of your body.
    You will find that this causes less mucus in the windpipe and less coughing after surgery.

    Will I be able to eat after laryngectomy?

    Immediately after surgery, you will not eat or drink anything by mouth. You will get your nutrition through a feeding tube. A few days after surgery, your health care provider will check to see if you can swallow food and liquids without a problem.
    Once you can swallow safely, you'll start eating soft foods (sweets and purees) and progress to a regular diet.

    What should I ask the doctor?

    If you've been diagnosed with laryngeal cancer, ask your provider:

    • What is the stage of the cancer?
    • What treatment options are available to me?
    • How will the treatment affect my speech, breathing and swallowing?
    • Will I need rehabilitation after treatment?
    • Will the cancer return?
    • How can I stay healthy?

    note:

    Laryngeal cancer occurs when cells grow out of control in the larynx or throat.
    You can prevent many throat cancers by avoiding tobacco and limiting alcohol intake.
    If you have symptoms of throat cancer such as hoarseness or other voice changes, a cough that doesn't go away or trouble swallowing, talk to your doctor.

    Treatment aims to remove the cancer while preserving your ability to talk, breathe and eat.
    Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgery to remove all or part of the larynx (larynxectomy).

    you can Contact us To find out the best doctors specializing in the field of laryngeal cancer surgery in Turkey/ Istanbul

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