Hyperthyroidism is a disease caused by an excess of thyroid hormones in the blood, especially T4. There are many ways to treat the symptoms of this disease in Turkey under the supervision of specialized doctors.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck, in front of the larynx and above the trachea.
The thyroid gland produces and secretes thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) under the influence of the pituitary hormone TSH. Thyroid hormones control the metabolic processes in the cells of the human body according to their concentration in the blood.
Hyperthyroidism occurs when excessive amounts of thyroid hormones are produced and secreted in the blood, which leads to the occurrence of many different symptoms due to the increased activity of all body systems and their consumption of energy.
Early diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism helps in removing harmful symptoms and protecting the body from complications that may result from high thyroid hormones.
You can statistics The American Thyroid Association reports that more than 20 million people in the United States have hyperthyroidism 60% of whom they are unaware of the disease, and that women are 5-8 times more affected than men.
Causes of hyperthyroidism
There are several conditions that can cause an overactive thyroid gland, including:
The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is responsible for more than 701 TP1T cases, affecting more females than males, and it is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the thyroid gland, causing it to secrete hormones excessively.
has confirmed Studies This disease is a genetic condition in which several genes are involved; When a family member has Graves' disease, the chance of a close relative getting it increases (although environmental factors play a role as well).
Exophthalmos associated with Graves' disease is one of the most prominent symptoms of the disease, and exophthalmos can be associated with dry eyes, eye congestion, watering, limited eye movement, double vision, and photosensitivity.
Don't forget to tell your doctor if any of your relatives has hyperthyroidism to help him identify the causes of hyperthyroidism.
Increasing the body's intake of iodine
Iodine is the mainstay in making thyroxine and triiodothyronine, so taking too much iodine may cause a temporary increase in thyroid activity.
Iodine is present in some foods such as fish, dairy, cheese, and iodized table salt. Some medicines also contain iodine, such as amiodarone, which is used to treat arrhythmias.
A thyroid nodule is an abnormal mass or proliferation of thyroid cells, which increases the secretion of thyroid hormones more than the body needs. thyroid cancer.
Inflammation of the thyroid gland leads to its enlargement and the leakage of some of its hormones into the bloodstream, causing a temporary state of hyperthyroidism, followed by a state of hypothyroidism as a result of the depletion of its hormonal stock.
Thyroiditis may occur when taking thyroid medications, after pregnancy, or as a result of an infection that affects the gland or a defect in the immune system.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism
Symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism vary, as high thyroid hormone affects the entire body and interferes with its various functions, so it is difficult to detect at first and sometimes mixed with anxiety.
The most common symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
- Goiter (enlarged thyroid gland in the neck)
- Nervousness, irritability and mood changes
- heavy sweating
- Increased appetite and weight loss
- Fatigue and insomnia
- muscle weakness
- Diarrhea and changes in digestive habits
- loss of libido andinfertility
- Disorders of the menstrual cycle in females
- fast heartbeat (may happen shiver)
- tremor in hands or fingers
- breathing difficulties
- hair loss and bombard it
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism may be subtle in older adults; The symptoms of hyperactivity are limited to a rapid heartbeat, intolerance to heat, and feeling tired when doing the simplest daily activities.
Complications of hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism may cause some risks and complications, the most important of which may be:
- Thyroid storm: Or the so-called “thyrotoxicosis”, which is a rare but dangerous and life-threatening complication. Thyrotoxicosis occurs when very large amounts of thyroid hormone are secreted within a short period, which leads to a rapid exacerbation of symptoms of hyperactivity, the case must be treated immediately and urgently.
- heart problems Such as tachycardia and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias such asatrial fibrillation Which doubles the risk of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure.
- Ocular problems: Especially with Graves' disease.
Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in Turkey
In the context of thyroid evaluation in Turkey, the doctor will listen to the patient’s complaint, take family antecedents, and conduct a clinical examination of the thyroid gland through contemplation and palpation to detect goiter and thyroid nodules.
The doctor can confirm the diagnosis by performing the following tests and investigations:
- Calibration of thyroxine and thyroxine levelsFree and triiodothyronine: To find out the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood, this test may give false results if a hyperthyroid patient is taking biotin (a type of B vitamin).
- Thyroid stimulating hormone assay TSH: The pituitary gland secretes it in order to stimulate the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. In the normal case, when thyroid hormones rise, the pituitary responds by reducing the amount of TSH secreted.
- Gamma-ray camera imaging: Since hyperthyroidism is associated with an increase in the thyroid gland’s uptake of radioactive iodine, this test is performed by making the patient take radioactive iodine and then lie down for a special camera to image the thyroid gland, which reveals whether the hyperactivity includes all or part of the thyroid gland.
- Thyroid echo: To measure the size of the thyroid gland and detect the presence of nodes or masses in it Knowing whether it is solid or cystic.
- Computed tomography CT or magnetic resonance MRI: These techniques may aid the diagnosis by detecting a TSH-secreting pituitary tumor.
Treatment of hyperthyroidism in Turkey
Hyperthyroidism is usually treatable in Turkey. Your doctor will help you decide the best way to treat hyperthyroidism based on your age, general health, and the cause and severity of hyperthyroidism. Treatment options include:
Treatment of hyperthyroidism with medication
Some medications for hyperthyroidism aim to treat symptoms of hyperthyroidism while others aim to reduce the production of thyroid hormones:
- Beta blockers: Although these medications do not affect thyroid hormone levels, they do help relieve symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as a fast heartbeat andCardiac fibrillation Shivering and irritability, by limiting the effects of thyroid hormone on the body until blood levels drop. Beta-blockers are used to treat temporary hyperthyroidism that may follow hypothyroidism and can be stopped as soon as thyroid hormones return to the normal level.
- Antisynthetic thyroid hormones: This group includes methimazole and propylithiouracil. It takes several weeks or months for symptoms to improve, but these drugs continue to be taken for at least a year. Side effects include joint pain andhair loss Rash and rarely liver damage.
As for the treatment of hyperthyroidism with herbs, it is not scientifically proven and lacks evidence and studies.
Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine
The patient can take tablets or liquids containing radioactive iodine. This radioactive iodine travels through the blood to the thyroid gland and destroys the overactive cells, causing the levels of thyroid hormone to drop in the blood.
The amount of radioactive iodine here is greater than the amount used in thyroid imaging, but it is less than the amount used forThyroid cancer treatment.
Treating hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine may reduce the activity of the thyroid gland to the point of hypoactivity (which is considered the easiest to treat), which requires replacing thyroid hormone with drugs that contain it.
It usually takes 3-6 months for symptoms to improve. Despite the concern about the risks of using radioactive material, this technique has been used for a long time without any problems to treat hyperthyroidism, but this is not an appropriate option in the case of pregnant and lactating women.
Surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism in Turkey
If medication is not an appropriate option for you to treat hyperthyroidism, then the doctor will perform thyroidectomy in Turkey.
During an operation for hyperparathyroidism, the doctor removes most or all of the gland tissue. Risks may include injury to the vocal cords or to the parathyroid glands (which control calcium levels in the blood).
You can now make Thyroidectomy by robot in Turkey.
Before the operation of hyperthyroidism, you may need to take antithyroid hormones to avoid complications. After the operation, hypothyroidism or hypothyroidism may occur, so you have to take hormonal supplements.
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