Which requires urgent surgical treatment in most cases and has a number of reasons in common. What are the surgical treatment methods available to correct cleft lip and palate in Turkey and more in this article.
Some children are born with birth defects in the mouth and lips. The most famous of these defects is the cleft lip, which may be accompanied by a cleft palate, not just the lip.
This is called orofacial clefts and appear from birth.
But it is good that these deformities can be repaired and the clefts of the jaw and the cleft of the upper lip can be closed.
The defect of the cleft lip and cleft upper palate can be corrected by performing a series of surgeries in order to restore the normal function and shape of the mouth and try to restore the usual features with minimal effects.
What is meant by cleft lips?
Failure to do so causes a congenital defect called the cleft lip. A cleft lip may be small, or it may be large and extend into the nose.
While the throat develops, or what is known as frenulum, in the period between the sixth week of the ninth week of pregnancy, a cleft palate occurs for the same reason, which is the failure of the fusion of the tissues of the throat in the roof of the mouth between the right and left sides, and this cleft may be in the front or back part, or both.
- Cleft in the upper lip on one side or on both sides and the shape of the lip resembles the mouth of a rabbit.
- The incision extends from the top of the lip to the gums and top of the palate, and may reach the bottom of the nose so that both the nasal cavity and the mouth are open to each other.
- The roof of the palate should be cleft, but without any apparent congenital defects.
- In a few cases, the opening may be in the soft tissue of the palate, i.e. in the posterior lining of the inner oral cavity.
This condition is not detected and diagnosed until other symptoms begin.
What are the symptoms of cleft lip and cleft palate?
In addition to their abnormal appearance, the openings in the upper lip and palate cause the following:
- Difficulty breastfeeding and eating at an older age.
- Recurrent ear and nose infections.
- Ear closure with wax as a result of repeated inflammation, which affects the development of hearing.
- Teeth not growing properly, in addition to being more susceptible to tartar and tooth deviation.
- Difficulty pronouncing words as well as the sound of nasal talking as the child gets older.
What are the causes of cleft lip and cleft palate?
The cleft of the mouth and palate occurs as a result of the failure of the fusion of the central facial tissues, partially or completely, in the throat or lips, and this leads to an opening in them.
The cause of cleft lip and cleft lip is unknown and there is no clear cause for it to date.
Many doctors believe that there are several factors involved in women giving birth to fetuses with cleft lip and cleft palate.
Where it is believed that some practices carried out by the pregnant woman may activate certain genes, which in turn leads to the failure of the union of the central bond in the fetus's palate and lip.
Perhaps heredity is independent and does not involve any symptoms of another syndrome, and it may be a combination of genetic problems.
These genes must be stimulated by different environmental conditions, which are called risk factors.
Risk factors for cleft palate and lip
- Pregnant women are exposed to harmful substances such as cigarettes, alcohol and medicines.
The chance of getting clefts of the lip and palate increases in women who smoke and who drink alcohol.
- Family heredity. Having a family history of cleft lip and cleft palate in both parents, whether in the father or mother’s family, increases the possibility of passing on the cleft palate gene to the child.
- Having chronic diabetes or noticing that a pregnant woman suffers from diabetes before she becomes pregnant increases the chance of fetal abnormalities.
As the diabetic woman is more likely to give birth to a fetus with cleft lip and cleft palate than others.
- Women diagnosed with epilepsy or depression and using their medications continuously, as some of these medications must be discontinued because they may cause abnormalities if they are taken during the first three months of pregnancy.
- Obese women.
It was found that there is an association between the birth of children with a birth defect such as the upper cleft lip and cleft palate, and the fact that the mothers have serious obesity.
The cleft lip, whether with or without cleft palate, increases in some syndromes such as DiGeorge syndrome (22q11 deletion).
How can the cleft lip and cleft palate be prevented?
The possibility of a recurrence of the mouth and throat defect at a later time cannot be ruled out, but the incidence of this is low and ranges from 2 to 8%.
- If you think you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant in the future, it is best to seek medical advice.
Getting a genetic test and checking your blood sugar and body mass index can help you avoid various risk factors and try to control them.
- If you have epilepsy, you should regulate your medications and ask that they be changed to medications that are less dangerous to the fetus.
This is not only important and protects against cleft lip and palate, but also reduces the chance of many birth defects.
- You should take the necessary vitamins before and during your pregnancy.
Folic acid is essential and important to protect against deformities of the face and spine.
- Stop smoking and drinking alcohol.
How can a cleft lip and cleft palate be diagnosed?
The upper lip is shaped like a furrow or cleft lip, and there may be openings in the palate.
Ultrasound imaging of fetuses in the uterus helps diagnose abnormalities inside the uterus, and no special examinations are required.
Where the doctor notes that there is a defect and inequality between the two halves of the upper lip.
It is easy to identify and diagnose a cleft lip by ultrasound, but a cleft palate may be delayed for longer periods and difficult to see, especially if it is in the inner part of the palate.
He may also suggest a genetic test if you want to become pregnant in the future.
Then the child is presented to a specialist doctor in order to find out the available treatment methods for cleft lip and palate and to answer the parents' questions.
Cleft lip and cleft palate treatment in Turkey
- Ear, Nose and Throat Doctors.
- Oral and oral surgeons.
- specialists Orthodontics for misalignment of the teeth To treat jaw and dental problems associated with clefts of the lip and palate.
- Pediatric surgery.
- Speech and hearing therapists.
- genetics experts.
- Psychologists and social workers.
cleft lip surgery And cleft palate in Turkey
The appropriate age for cleft lip surgery also varies, some of them need quick surgery and some may wait until they reach the age of 18 months.
Surgical correction is necessary to reshape the face as it improves breathing, nutrition, hearing and other basic functions.
- Closing the cleft lip during the first six months.
- Correction of cleft palate within a maximum period of 12 months, preferably as soon as possible.
- Subsequent surgeries according to the child's need during his development and into adulthood.
Dealing with complications of cleft lip
- Use a special bottle for feeding, taking into account reducing the amount of milk so that your child does not get tired while feeding.
- Enrollment in speech therapy programs.
- Periodic follow-up with the dentist, placement of orthodontics in a timely manner, and advice on maintaining oral and dental health.
- Treating ear infections and paying attention to its complications.
- Requesting an audiologist’s consultation about the child’s need for hearing aids.
- Community integration and support for parents and children to help them accept their appearance and support them psychologically.