Cover image talking about the symptoms of early kidney failure

The most important symptoms of early renal failure and its treatment in Turkey

Symptoms of early kidney failure warn that kidney disease must be treated immediately. Among the early symptoms warning of failure are permanent fatigue and edema in the extremities. Anemia may occur later.

Symptoms of Early Kidney Failure (Intro)

A normal person has two kidneys that are located in the flank area of the lower back on both sides of the spine. The kidneys perform many functions in the human body and are essential for life.

One of the most important functions of the kidney is basically filtering the blood and purifying it of waste products and toxins, so in the event of kidney failure, these toxins will accumulate, leading to many systemic and dangerous symptoms that may lead to death.

Renal failure is divided into two types; (Types of Kidney Failure) Acute Kidney Failure and Chronic Kidney Failure Acute kidney failure develops within hours or days, causing a rapid deterioration in kidney function.

Chronic kidney failure occurs over a period of years, causing a gradual deterioration in the work of the kidneys, and therefore a person may not initially feel any symptoms until he reaches a critical point in which he loses his kidney.

Causes of kidney failure

There are many causes of kidney failure, but there are generally two main reasons for which kidney failure occurs, and they are:

  • diabetes (Especially uncontrolled high blood sugar causes kidney failure due to long-term kidney damage.)
  • Excessive arterial hypertension (also uncontrolled and left untreated because the hypertension affects the kidney vessels).

These two reasons are attributed to most cases of kidney failure, and other reasons for which a person develops kidney failure include many diseases, including:

  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Chronic heart disease such as congestive heart failure
  • Some congenital kidney defects
  • Advanced age (over 60 years old)
  • Some medicines: especially those taken without a prescription, which some patients may become addicted to for years and take excessive doses of them, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen) or some antibiotics (gentamicin).

    A picture of a polycystic kidney that may cause symptoms of early renal failure
    Polycystic kidney that may cause symptoms of early renal failure

There is also another division of causes of kidney failure, and this division includes:

Pre-renal causes of kidney failure

It is the presence of any abnormality in the blood supply to the kidney through its own arteries, such as blockage of the renal artery due to a clot or atherosclerosis (often of the acute type).

Some heart or liver diseases may be the cause. Anaphylactic shock, severe dehydration and profuse bleeding also cause this type of kidney failure.

Renal causes of renal failure

It includes kidney tissue diseases, such as some autoimmune diseases that damage the kidney and lead to kidney failure, such as some complications of systemic lupus erythematosus or post-streptococcal nephropathy (often of the chronic type).

This type also occurs with: glomerulonephritis, scleroderma, poisoning with heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury in addition to drugs and alcohol, severe hemolysis as in hemolytic jaundice and also the occurrence of muscle breakdown.

Post-renal causes of renal failure

It is any obstruction in the urethra from the kidneys to the external medium (ureter, bladder, urethra). The most prominent of these causes are:

  • Urinary stones in the kidney, ureter, bladder or even in the urethra (press Here to learn about its treatment).
  • Neurogenic bladder, especially those that cause urinary retention (press Here to learn about its treatment).
  • Prostate enlargement in older men or Prostate cancer.
  • cervical cancer
  • colon cancer
  • Bladder Cancer

Symptoms of early kidney failure

Including the symptoms of early kidney failure and symptoms of late kidney failure, the symptoms of early kidney failure often do not exist and the patient may have kidney failure without feeling and not noticing the symptoms of kidney failure until after losing a large part of the kidney function.

We may see some of the symptoms of early kidney failure in some cases, which include:

  • Decreased urine volume
  • Shortness of breath in the patient
  • Edema of the hands and feet

Kidney failure symptoms

The kidney has compensating mechanisms that make the loss of part of its function unnoticed, so the patient does not feel any of the symptoms of early kidney failure, so people who expect kidney failure should be examined.

Symptoms of kidney failure are divided into chronic symptoms and acute symptoms according to the speed of development and appearance of these symptoms.

Symptoms of Acute Kidney Disease AKD

It is characterized by its rapid appearance within hours or days and may lead to a very rapid deterioration in the patient's condition due to the failure to filter toxins and toxic wastes in the blood, and these symptoms include:

  • confusion
  • coma
  • convulsions
  • high arterial tension

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Symptoms

These symptoms are characterized by developing over a long period and slowly, and some of them may be early symptoms of warning of failure, or they may appear suddenly, but on the basis of chronic kidney disease, and the symptoms of chronic kidney failure are:

  • Foamy urine (it has bubbles and is called albuminuria)
  • Anemia (pale with general fatigue)
  • pain in chest
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Anorexia
  • Peripheral edema with swelling of the hands and feet due to water retention
  • shortness of breath
  • muscle spasm
  • General weakness and permanent fatigue
  • High blood pressure
  • Osteoporosis and easy fractures
  • Itching of the skin (the accumulation of waste products in a person's skin instead of being excreted through the kidneys)
  • Sleep disturbance such as insomnia or excessive sleepiness
  • Constant feeling of tiredness
  • Some neurological symptoms
  • Variation in the amount of urine according to the stage of the disease (decrease or increase)

stages of kidney failure

Failure in chronic kidney disease is divided into five stages. Kidney failure depends on the severity of the patient's symptoms or on the measured glomerular filtration rate in the patient (how the kidneys filter substances from the blood, the maximum is 120 and the minimum 0).

The first stage of chronic renal failure

Where the clearance of the kidney is above 90 and the disease here is in its early stage and the patient does not show any warning symptoms of failure due to kidney decompensation, or he may have very mild symptoms.

The second stage of chronic renal failure

The filtration rate drops to 60 and some mild symptoms such as the presence of protein in the urine (foamy urine or albuminuria) begin to appear.

Third stage of chronic kidney failure

The renal clearance becomes 30 and the function of the kidneys is clearly impaired and toxins begin to accumulate more in the body due to the chronic disease.

Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Failure

Filter 15 and the patient loses most of the kidney function.

Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Failure

The total clearance is less than 15 and the patient loses all kidney function and all of the above-mentioned symptoms (eg vomiting, nausea, loss of appetite) appear.

A picture of the stages of chronic kidney disease
Stages of chronic kidney disease

Kidney failure treatment

The treatment of kidney failure depends on the disease causing it. If the kidney failure is caused by a clear and severe disease (such as anaphylactic shock or profuse bleeding), the treatment here restores the kidney function and the failure is temporary.

But if the cause is a chronic disease such as high blood sugar or pressure for a long time and without treatment, this will lead to cumulative damage to the kidney and may prevent recovery from occurring.

In general, chronic kidney failure is an incurable disease, but staying without treatment means death within a few days or a few weeks. Treatment for kidney failure includes the following:

preventative treatment

First, the risk factors that cause kidney failure must be controlled by using certain medications such as antihypertensives, or by treating autoimmune diseases with immunosuppressants to prevent kidney failure.

Also, some diuretics may be used in the early stages, and the most important thing in the treatment of kidney failure is controlling the volume of fluids in the body to relieve edema of the hands and feet, and the concentration of electrolytes in them, especially potassium ions, to avoid heart rhythm disturbances.

Dialysis to treat kidney failure

Hemodialysis: It involves drawing blood from the patient's body through special tubes to enter the washing machine that purifies the blood from toxins and waste, and then the blood returns to the body pure. The patient needs approximately 3-4 dialysis times a week so that his kidney failure does not deteriorate.

A picture showing the treatment of kidney failure using hemodialysis
Treatment of kidney failure using hemodialysis

Peritoneal dialysis: It is similar to the previous dialysis, but it depends on injecting a liquid into the abdomen, we wait for a certain period, then we return and withdraw the fluid from the abdomen, so that the excess waste is absorbed from the body fluids.

Kidney transplantation in Turkey

A kidney surgeon removes your non-functioning kidney and replaces it with a kidney from another living donor, after testing between the two people in the hospital for compatibility.

A person can live with one kidney normally, so a kidney transplant is resorted to when both kidneys fail, the average life of an individual undergoing dialysis is between 5 and 10 years (and may reach 30).

As for the average life of a person undergoing a kidney transplant, it is close to 20 years, and the latest methods and the most skilled doctors are available in Turkey to carry out this operation Kidney Transplant With high success rates, the latest technology is also available to perform Robotic kidney transplantation.

will guide you Bimaristan Medical Center To the most skilled doctors and surgeons to treat kidney failure in Turkey, in case you suffer from kidney failure disease Contact us To receive the best care and get rid of the symptoms of chronic kidney failure.


Sources:

  1. healthline
  2. Urology Care Foundation
  3. American Kidney Fund

Common Questions

Creatinine is a metabolite and is completely filtered in the kidneys, so it is titrated in the blood, and when it rises that might indicate to kidney damage or failure.

There are some genetic diseases that warn of hereditary kidney failure, such as polycystic kidney disease.

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