All you need to know about prostate cancer

prostate cancer

 

What is prostate cancer?

prostate cancer A serious disease that affects thousands of middle-aged and older men each year. About 60 percent of cases occur in men over 65 years of age. The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that 174,650 new American men will be diagnosed with this condition in 2019.

prostate It is a small gland located in the lower abdomen of a man. located under bladder It surrounds the urethra. Regulates testosterone prostate Semen is produced. Semen is the substance that contains sperm that exits the urethra during ejaculation.

When we have an abnormal and malignant growth of cells - which is called a tumor - in the prostate, it is called prostate cancer.
This cancer can spread to other areas of the body. In this case, since cancer is made up of cells from
prostate, it is still called prostate cancer.

According to the Urology Care Foundation, prostate cancer It is the second leading cause of cancer death for men in the United States.

What are the types of prostate cancer?

all Prostate cancers Roughly speaking, they are adenocarcinomas (malignant tumors). This type of cancer begins in the cells of the glands that make secretions. Other types of cancer may develop in prostate However, this is rare. Such as:

  • Small cell carcinomas.
  • Transitional cell carcinomas.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors.
  • Sarcomas.

Who may have prostate cancer?

Men over 55 years of age are more likely to develop the disease. Your chance of getting injured increases prostate cancer As you get older. In fact, 60% of cases of prostate cancer It affects men over the age of 65. The risk of infection increases in the following cases:

  • Race (Black men are most at risk).
  • Family history of injury prostate cancer.
  • obesity.
  • smoking.

What causes prostate cancer?

Experts aren't sure why some cells in the thyroid gland are transformedfor prostate into cancerous (malignant) cells. But genetics seem to play a role. for example:

  • You are more likely to get injured prostate cancer Two or three times if your father, brother or son has the disease.
  • Inherited mutated breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) and other genetic mutations contribute to a small number of Prostate cancers.
  • Where you live can also play a role in your risk prostate cancer.

At what age does prostate cancer appear?

As mentioned above, age is a major risk factor for infection prostate cancer. This disease most often occurs in men over 65 years of age. It occurs in about 1 in 14 men between the ages of 60 and 69.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

seldom causes prostate cancer In its early stages symptoms. These problems may occur as the disease progresses:

  • Frequent and sometimes urgent need to urinate, especially at night.
  • Poor urine flow or a flow that starts and stops.
  • Painful urination (dysuria).
  • Faecal (intestinal) incontinence.
  • Painful ejaculation and erectile dysfunction (ED).
  • Blood in semen or urine.
  • Low back pain, groin pain and chest pain.
  • Numbness in the leg or feet.

Are prostate problems always a sign of prostate cancer?

Not all cases of growth in prostate Cancerous, not all problems indicate prostate to cancer. Other conditions that cause similar symptoms include for prostate cancer are one of the following:

  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): At some point, nearly every man will develop hypertrophy prostate Benign (BPH). This condition causes an enlarged gland prostate But it does not increase the risk of cancer. The swollen gland puts pressure on the urethra and blocks the flow of semen and urine. Medicines, and sometimes surgery, can help.

A large prostate enlargement compared to the normal condition, which appears on the opposite side of the image

  • Prostatitis: Men under the age of 50 are more likely to develop prostatitis, inflammation and swelling of a gland prostate. A bacterial infection is often the cause. Treatments include antibiotics or other medications.

Early signs of prostate cancer

Any of the above symptoms could be the first indication that you have an infection prostate cancerHowever, urinary symptoms are more likely to appear earlier than other symptoms.

It's important to keep in mind that most of these symptoms can be caused by conditions other than cancer. These cases include Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) orinflammation prostate.

So, while it's important to monitor any symptoms you may have, remember that there's a good chance they're not due to cancer.

But it should be noted that neither of these two conditions leads to the appearance of blood in the urine. If you have blood in your urine, call your doctor right away.

Blood in the urine may be caused by something other than cancer, but it's a good idea to get it diagnosed as soon as possible.

Prostate cancer screening and diagnosis

It is often based on screening prostate cancer on your personal preferences. This is largely because most Prostate cancers It grows slowly and does not cause any health problems.

This is also because the test results Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which can be part of the screening, may lead to a misdiagnosis of cancer. For both of these reasons, the examination may cause unnecessary anxiety and unnecessary treatment.

Screening Recommendations

The American Cancer Society (ACS) has screening recommendations for men as they age. During the annual examination, they recommend that doctors talk to men of certain ages about the pros and cons of screening prostate cancer. These conversations are recommended for the following ages according to the following:

  • Age 40: For high-risk men who have more than one first-degree relative - father, brother or son - who have been infected prostate cancer At the age of under 65.
  • Age 45: For men at high risk, such as African American men and men whose first-degree relative was diagnosed at age under 65.
  • Age 50: For men at average risk prostate cancerand who are expected to live at least another 10 years.

The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) now recommends that men ages 55 to 69 decide for themselves whether to get tested. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)After talking to their doctor.

The USPSTF concludes that the potential benefits of PSA-based screening for men aged 70 and older do not outweigh the expected harms.

Diagnostic Tools

If you and your doctor decide to check prostate cancer If this is a good option for you, your doctor will likely do a physical exam and discuss your health history. They will also do one or more of the following tests:

  • Digital Rectal Examination (DRE): With this exam, your doctor will insert a finger into your rectum to examine prostate. They can feel if there are any hard lumps on the gland prostate It could be tumors.

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE), also known as palpation

  • Test Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)This blood test detects levels of PSA, a protein produced by the bodyfor prostate.
  • biopsy prostateYour doctor may order a biopsy to help confirm a diagnosis prostate cancer. For a biopsy, a health care provider removes a small piece of a gland prostate to be examined.

How to take a biopsy of the prostate

  • Other tests: Your doctor may also do an MRI, CT scan, or bone scan.

Magnetic resonance imaging device

  • Your doctor will discuss the results of these tests with you and make recommendations for any next steps that may be needed.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test

test checks Prostate-specific antigen of quantity Prostate-specific antigen in your blood. If the levels are high, it may mean that you are infected prostate cancer.

However, there are many reasons why you should have a large amount of Prostate-specific antigen in your blood, so test results could lead to a misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment.

Therefore, the USPSTF now recommends that men between the ages of 55 and 69 should decide for themselves whether to have a PSA test, after speaking with their doctor.

However, still PSA test Suitable in certain situations, such as men at high risk of infection prostate cancer. Also, if you already have a confirmed case of prostate cancerThis test is still approved for staging or grading cancer.

Before you consider having a PSA blood test, talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test result

Gleeson scale

If you have had a biopsy prostate, you will get a Gleason score. Pathologists use this result to classify the degree of cells prostate cancer. The classification indicates how much the abnormal cells look like cancer, and how aggressive their growth is.

A Gleason score of less than six means that your cells aren't showing signs of cancer, so your risk is low. If your score is seven or higher, your doctor will likely look at your score and your PSA level to evaluate cells.

For example, a Gleason score of 7, with a PSA level between 10 to 20 ng/ml, means that cancer cells have been identified — but likely that the cancer is non-aggressive, with slow-growing cells.

A Gleason score of 8 or higher, with PSA levels greater than 20 ng/ml, indicates a more advanced tumor. This means that your risk of developing severe cancer is higher.

Gleason staging scale for prostate cancer

What are the stages of prostate cancer?

Your health care provider uses the Gleason and Grade Group scores to determine the stage prostate cancer Based on his expected aggressiveness. To obtain this information, the pathologist will:

  • Assigns a score to each type of cell in your sample. Cells are rated on a scale from three (slow growing) to five (aggressive). Specimens that are categorized in the one to two range are considered normal tissue.
  • The two most common scores combine for a Gleason score (ranging from six to ten).
  • The Gleason score is used to place you in a score range from one to five. A six-point Gleason score places you in the first group (a cancer that is slow-growing and may not require treatment). A grade 9 or higher puts you in group 5 (a aggressive, fast-growing cancer that requires immediate treatment). Samples with more amount of more aggressive cells are categorized into a higher group.

How is prostate cancer treated or treated?

Some people never need treatment because the cancer grows slowly and does not spread. With treatment, most prostate cancer highly curable. Treatment options include:

  • active monitoring: With this approach, you can have exams, scans, and biopsies every one to three years to monitor the growth of the cancer. Active surveillance works best if the cancer is only present in prostate It is slow growing and does not cause symptoms.
  • Watchful waiting: Watchful waiting appears similar to active monitoring, but is often used in older or more frail patients. Similar to active surveillance, this approach does not involve definitive treatment at diagnosis. However, testing is less frequent and focused on managing symptoms.
  • brachytherapyIt is a form of internal radiotherapy, which involves placing radioactive seeds inside prostate. This approach helps preserve the surrounding healthy tissue.
  • External beam radiotherapyIn external radiation therapy, powerful X-rays are directed directly at the tumor. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a form of external radiation therapy that delivers powerful doses of radiation to the site of the disease.

External radiotherapy for prostate cancer

  • Systemic treatmentsYour doctor may recommend systemic treatments if the cancer has spread beyond a gland prostate. These treatments include chemotherapy, androgen deprivation hormone therapy, and immunotherapy.
  • focal therapyFocal therapy is a new form of treatment that focuses on treating only the cancerous part of the bodyfor prostate. You may be able to try this treatment if your cancer has not yet spread. Include options High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Therapy orcryotherapy orlaser ablation and photodynamic therapy;
High-intensity ultrasound therapy, which is one of the ways to treat prostate cancer
Ultrasound therapy
  • Prostatectomy: This surgical procedure removes the thyroid glandfor prostate sick. Surgeons can perform excision prostate laparoscopic andRobotic definitive prostatectomy Through small incisions in the abdomen. These procedures are less invasive than excision prostate Open final, which requires a larger incision in the abdomen, although both are effective in removing cancer.
Robotic prostatectomy in Turkey
Robotic prostatectomy

What are the side effects of prostate cancer treatment?

Some treatments can affect prostate cancer It affects the bladder, erectile nerves, and the sphincter muscle that controls urination. Possible problems include:

  • incontinence: Some men suffer from incontinence. Urine may leak when you cough or laugh, or you may feel an urgent need to use the bathroom even when your bladder isn't full. This problem can improve within the first 6 to 12 months without treatment.
  • Erectile dysfunction (ED): Surgery, radiation and other treatments can damage erectile nerves and affect your ability to get or maintain an erection. Some men regain erectile function within a year or two (sometimes sooner). Meanwhile, medications such as sildenafil (Viagra®) or tadalafil (Cialis) can help by increasing blood flow to the penis.
  • infertilityTreatments can affect your ability to produce or ejaculate sperm, leading to male infertility. If you think you might want to have children in the future, you can keep your sperm in a sperm bank before starting treatment. If you want to have children after you have undergone treatment, you may need to extract sperm directly from the testicular tissue and implant it in the woman's uterus.

What is the outlook for people with prostate cancer?

because of prostate cancer As it tends to grow slowly, most men die of something other than this disease. Early detection is key to achieving better results. Long live all infected men prostate cancer Almost localized (97% to 98%) for at least five years after diagnosis if disease has not yet spread beyond prostate. When the cancer spreads outside prostateOne-third of men are still alive after five years.

How can I prevent prostate cancer?

Most men get infected prostate cancer As they age for no known reason. Prevention is not possible. However, if you have certain risk factors for infection prostate cancerTaking these steps may help reduce risks and get the disease under control early:

  • Have regular checkups for the prostate.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Eat a nutritious diet.
  • Quit Smoking.

Talk to your doctor

Prepare prostate cancer It is dangerous for all men as they age, but if it is caught and treated early, the outlook is generally good. So as you get older, be sure to have open conversations with your doctor about your risks.

If you have any symptoms you think they might be prostate cancerTalk to your doctor immediately. Even if you don't have symptoms, consider adopting a healthy lifestyle to reduce your risk.

Eating a diet rich in vegetables and fish and low in dairy and full-fat red meat, along with an exercise plan approved by your doctor, can help reduce your risk. prostate cancerAs well as improving your health in general.

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Common Questions

Prostate cancer is a disease that affects thousands of middle-aged and older men each year.

  • Frequent and sometimes urgent need to urinate, especially at night.
  • Poor urine flow or a flow that starts and stops.
  • Painful urination (dysuria).
  • Faecal (intestinal) incontinence.
  • Painful ejaculation and erectile dysfunction (ED).
  • Blood in semen or urine.
  • Low back pain, groin pain and chest pain.
  • numbness in the leg or feet

Not all growths in the prostate are cancerous, and not all prostate problems indicate cancer.

Some people never need treatment because the cancer grows slowly and does not spread. With treatment, most prostate cancer is highly curable. In some cases, surgery may be required to remove the prostate.

The following steps may help reduce the risk and get the disease under control early:
Get regular prostate exams
Maintain a healthy weight
Exercise regularly.
Eat a nutritious diet
Quit Smoking

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