Varicocele operation

Varicocele operation to treat infertility

Varicocele surgery has an important role in treating infertility and improving fertility in a large number of men, as varicose veins in the testicles are responsible for more than 40% cases of male infertility.

contributed Varicocele removal surgery By increasing the chances of conceiving in infertile males by more than 70% than it was before the operation, as varicocele surgery is one of the most common surgeries performed to treat infertility in men.

Varicocele is one of the common problems that affect men around the world. Statistical studies have indicated that 15% males will suffer from varicocele. In Turkey, advanced, minimally invasive techniques are used to perform varicocele surgery without a high risk of side complications. Follow us to learn everything you need about varicocele surgery.

What is varicocele?

In order to understand how varicoceles affect the male reproductive capacity, we must first know what varicoceles are and what we mean by them.

In fact, the term “varicocele” or “varicocele” refers to an enlargement or swelling of the blood vessels in the scrotum (the scrotal sac that houses the testicles).

The scrotal veins transport blood from your testicles towards the heart, and through this they regulate the temperature of the testicles, because the semen production process requires a temperature 3 degrees lower than the normal body temperature. too high, causing infertility.

Read more about: Methods of treating male infertility.

This picture shows a comparison between the case of venous expansions (varicose veins), which may require a varicocele operation, and the normal condition of the veins of the testicles
Note the difference between the enlarged veins (varicose veins) and the normal veins in the testicle

When is the varicocele operation performed?

First of all, the varicocele operation is not performed for all those with varicose veins, but rather the operation is reserved for some cases that show symptoms only, meaning that a large group of men may have varicocele, but these varicose veins do not cause them any symptoms and problems and they enjoy good fertility without even being aware of the presence of varicose veins .

The need for action appears Varicocele surgery When a man suffers from symptoms resulting from the presence of varicose veins in the testicle, such as feeling pain or discomfort around the pubic area, in addition to suffering from infertility resulting from the presence of these varicose veins, the testicular varicocele may also affect the production of the male hormone (testosterone), which causes many disturbing symptoms for men.

When varicose veins occur at an early age, there may be a delay in puberty in the juvenile, and surgical intervention is indicated here to treat the condition of varicose veins until puberty occurs at the normal age of the male and his genitals mature.

How is the varicocele operation performed in Turkey?

Currently, there are several methods through which the varicocele operation is performed. The operation may be done by a surgical endoscope, which is characterized as a low-risk procedure and does not require large surgical incisions, and the recovery after it does not take long.

Varicocele surgery may be performed with a surgical microscope. Let's discuss more details about the types of varicocele operations:

Laparoscopic varicocele operation

In this type of varicocele surgery, the varicocele is treated by using a dedicated telescope equipped with a camera that allows the doctor to obtain a clear view of the varicocele. The surgeon inserts the scope by making a small surgical incision in the abdomen, so that the scope is inserted and directed accurately through a video screen until it reaches the varicose veins.

The surgeon uses surgical tools to cut the dilated veins (varicose veins) and close the ends of the cut veins by using small clamps or by means of thermal coagulation. After this is completed, the surgical tools and the endoscope are withdrawn and the small incision is closed.

This operation is characterized by its low risk and minimal invasiveness compared to the traditional open surgery, in addition to the fact that it is performed in a short time. Where the procedure ends in an average of 40 minutes, and the patient recovers quickly and is able to return to his daily activities, and he does not need a long rest period after the operation.

Image showing how laparoscopic varicocele surgery is performed
Laparoscopic varicocele operation

Microscopic varicocele operation

In this type of varicocele surgery, the surgeon makes a surgical incision above the scrotum with a length of 1 cm, and then with the help of a microscope (microscope) connects the small dilated veins together and is careful to avoid harming the vas deferens (the tube that carries the sperm) or the artery of the testicle as well as the lymphatic vessels and other important structures that surround the testicles.

This operation can be performed in the doctor's outpatient clinic or in the hospital. Microscopic varicocele surgery usually takes 2 to 3 hours, and the person can return home on the same day as the surgery.

Image taken of the varicocele process with the help of a microscope (microscope)
Microscopic varicocele operation

Varicocele surgery open surgery

During the open operation of the varicocele, the surgeon resorts to making a wide surgical incision so that he can see the varicocele, remove it manually and reconnect the ends together. This operation may be performed in several ways, including:

Inguinal ligation

With this type of surgical intervention, the surgeon reaches the varicose veins through the inguinal canal, which is located in the pubic area near the lower abdomen, after which the varicocele is removed and tied.

Subinguinal ligation

The surgeon reaches the varicose veins through the thigh below the inguinal ligament and then ties the varicocele and reconnects the ends of the veins.

Retroperitoneal high ligation

The surgical incision is made in the area behind the peritoneum (transparent watery membrane in the abdomen), and the varicose veins are treated and tied, as is the case with previous operations.

Despite the difference in surgical techniques, the goal remains the same, which is to treat and eradicate varicocele, as choosing the appropriate method is up to the surgeon who will perform the operation.

Catheter varicocele operation

This procedure is not very common, but it may be used in some cases. Treatment of varicose veins through catheters involves diverting blood flow away from dilated veins (varicose veins) in order to prevent further dilatation of the veins, which aggravates symptoms.

The radiologist may use several methods to release a thrombus in the dilated veins of the testicle, such as using thermal design through interference with the vessels of the groin.

This picture shows how to do varicocele surgery by catheter designing the veins
Performing varicocele surgery by catheterization by placing an embolus that prevents blood flow to the varicose veins

Tips before varicocele surgery

After you have been nominated for varicocele surgery, you must follow the instructions and advice that your doctor tells you prior to the procedure. Among these tips are the following:

  • Tell your doctor about all the medications and nutritional supplements you take, as he may ask you to adjust or stop some medications
  • The doctor will ask you to stop eating or drinking a specific period before the procedure, usually 12 hours before your operation. It is necessary to strictly adhere to your doctor’s instructions to avoid side effects of the operation.
  • Understand the nature of the operation well and inquire about how to prepare before the operation and recover after it
  • Taking a shower before the operation may help reduce your risk of infection, but you should avoid using chemical deodorants and other substances that irritate the skin. Consult your doctor, as he may prescribe a special soap for you to shower before the operation.
  • Take a family member with you to drive you home after the operation is over, as you may not be able to drive a car due to the effect of anesthesia

Post varicocele surgery

After completing the operation, you will be taken to the recovery room until you wake up from the effects of the anesthesia. You will usually stay in the hospital for two to three hours until you are allowed to leave the hospital and go home.

Healing and recovery after varicocele surgery does not require much time and you are often able to resume your normal daily activities after 3 days of rest after the operation, but it is preferable to avoid carrying heavy weights for 3 to 4 weeks after your operation.

You may feel pain in the lower abdomen around the pubic area for a period ranging from 3 to 6 weeks after varicocele surgery, and you may notice swelling and redness around the scrotum that lasts for an estimated period of 3 to 4 weeks before it goes away on its own.

The specialist may prescribe painkillers for you in the period after the varicocele operation to relieve the pain that you may feel during the recovery phase, and the application of ice may help reduce swelling around the pubic area (consult your doctor to tell you how to do this).

It is recommended to abstain from sexual intercourse for a period of not less than two weeks after the varicocele operation, and this period varies according to the nature of the operation and how it is performed. Using the scope makes this period shorter than it is in the case of open surgery. You should also avoid strenuous activities that increase pressure around your abdomen, such as lifting heavy weights or swimming, for a period to be determined by the specialist. Constipation should also be prevented during this period by eating a diet rich in fiber or taking laxatives.

The patient should not shower after the operation so as not to expose the scrotum to water and hinder the healing of the surgical incision. If you notice signs that the operation wound has opened, see your doctor immediately.

to evaluate the effectiveness Varicocele removal surgery In improving fertility and treating infertility, you will be asked to do a semen analysis 6 months after the operation, in order to search for an improvement in the specifications and quality of your fluid compared to a sample of fluid taken before you undergo surgery.

Varicocele operation success rate

Numerous studies have been conducted on varicocele surgery and its effectiveness in treating male infertility and improving fertility for sterile men. According to statistical studies, the results of semen analysis of patients who underwent the operation indicated a significant improvement in the quality and characteristics of the fluid in 60 to 80% patients, and the chances of conceiving Increased from 20% to 60% in people who had varicocele surgery.

Other studies investigated the usefulness of varicose veins surgery in the treatment of azoospermia (zero male infertility) and concluded that Varicose removal surgery It had some benefit in increasing the chances of conceiving in about 20% of these people.

As for the success rate of the operation in the treatment and removal of varicose veins, it ranges from 90 to 99%, but this surgery does not necessarily succeed in treating infertility, and always remember that pregnancy and recovery from infertility are by the will of God Almighty.

The seriousness of the varicocele operation

There is no medical procedure that is completely free from the possibility of some risks or side effects, even if they are very rare. With regard to varicocele surgery, it may be associated with some complications, including:

  • Anesthesia problems
  • Transmission of infection or sepsis to the operation area
  • Bruising and swelling around the surgical site
  • Bleeding and hematoma formation
  • Hydrocele in the testicle
  • Damage to the testicular artery
  • Varicose veins may reappear some time after the operation
  • There is no benefit from the varicocele operation

These complications can be avoided as much as possible when the operation is performed under the supervision of a doctor with considerable experience. Contact us to guide you to the best and most experienced urologists in Turkey.

Varicocele operation cost in Turkey

The cost of the operation of varicose veins in the testicle varies according to the nature of the operation and the method through which it was performed. The price of open varicocele surgery differs from the price of laparoscopic varicocele surgery and the price of varicocele surgery by catheterization and other methods.

However, on average, the price of varicocele surgery in Turkey starts from 1500 US dollars, and this price is relatively low compared to other countries. Fill out the form and contact us to determine the appropriate technique to perform the operation and know the exact price.

Turkey is one of the leading countries in the field Medical Tourism Because of the development of its medical practice and its low treatment prices, you can contact our medical team to guide you to the best treatment centers in Turkey.

In the end, varicocele surgery is one of the most important and common surgeries to treat male infertility. This operation may be performed using several methods, the most important of which is the minimally invasive surgical endoscope with low risk, and it is characterized by good success rates and a low risk of complications, and recovery after it does not require much time. This operation has proven its effectiveness in treating infertility in a good number of males.


  1. Healthline
  2. Webmd
  3. Urology Care Foundation

Frequently Asked Questions

Determining the appropriate time for sexual intercourse after varicocele surgery is done by the specialist, but it is usually advised to abstain from sex for a period of not less than 14 days after surgery.

Some people notice swelling and bruising around the scrotum containing the testicles after the completion of the varicose veins surgery, and this is normal and goes away automatically after a short period, which may reach for a whole month for some.

The most important sign of the success of the varicocele operation in the treatment of infertility is by conducting an analysis of the patient’s sperm about 6 months after the operation. The quality of the sperm is evaluated and any improvements in the condition of the fluid are looked for.

It is difficult to determine a fixed pregnancy rate for all patients due to the different nature of each case from the other. Statistics estimated an improvement in the ratio in general from 16 to 60% after varicocele treatment.

Testicular pain may continue for 4 to 6 weeks after your surgery. You can control the pain by taking pain-relieving medications such as ibuprofen during this period.

There are some reasons that lead to the failure of the varicocele operation to achieve the desired results, as the varicose veins may relapse and reappear again not long after their removal; The surgeon may fail to remove the small varicocele well because of his insufficient experience or the presence of accompanying problems in the patient that make the operation of the varicocele difficult.

The location of the wound differs according to the method through which the varicocele surgery was performed. The operation wound may be located directly above the testicles and be small when the operation is performed by laparoscopy, while the operation wound tends to be wider when the surgery is performed in the traditional open method. It may be located in the abdomen or pubic area, depending on the surgical technique used. .

Varicocele does not necessarily cause infertility in males, as it may not be associated with any symptoms and does not require surgery to treat it, while some people with varicocele may have poor fertility and infertility that requires proper treatment of varicose veins.

You can take a shower 24 hours after the varicose veins operation, taking care not to press too hard on the operation wound area and avoid using very hot water and chemical preparations that irritate the skin. In addition, it is advised not to sit in a bathtub full of water, but to take a shower by pouring water carefully.

The cost of varicocele treatment in Turkey depends mainly on the technique used in carrying out the operation. As the cost of a varicocele operation using a microscope differs from the cost of an open surgery, in general, the price of a varicocele operation in Turkey starts from 1,500 USD.

If you are planning for treatment in Turkey
you can talk to us here.

If you are planning for treatment in Turkey
you can talk to us here.