Kidney cancer, its causes, symptoms, methods of prevention, and the latest treatment methods in Turkey.
Kidney cancer is among the 10 most common types of cancer in men and women, and it may be asymptomatic in its early stage, so it is difficult to detect it in its early stages.
To understand more about kidney cancer, we must learn about the kidney and its functions.
What is a college and what are its functions?
The kidney is a bean-shaped organ in the body located below the rib cage near the middle of the back.
Most people have two kidneys, each about the size of a fist, one on each side of the spine.
The kidneys remove waste and control blood pressure, in addition to many other functions such as producing hormones necessary for blood formation and have a role in the manufacture of vitamin D.
The blood passes through the kidneys to be cleaned before returning to the heart.
Blood enters the kidneys through two vessels called renal arteries.
Inside the kidneys are millions of tiny structures called nephrons.
The nephrons are the actual filters that remove waste products and fluid from the blood.
The kidneys also produce urine, which is made up of extra water and waste products that are filtered from the blood. Urine travels to the bladder (a balloon-shaped storage bag) through two tubes called the ureters.
The bladder empties urine from the body (through the process of urination) through another tube called the urethra.
The kidneys also produce several important hormones, including:
- Erythropoietin: This hormone stimulates the bone marrow (the soft, spongy tissue inside the large bones in the body where blood cells are formed) to produce red blood cells. Where red blood cells transport oxygen to the cells of the body.
- Renin: This hormone regulates blood pressure.
- Calcitriol: This hormone tells the intestines to absorb calcium from the foods we eat. Calcium is a mineral that helps maintain healthy bones and teeth.
What is kidney cancer?
It is an abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the kidney. Over time, these cells form a mass called a tumor.
Cancer begins when something causes a change in the DNA of cells, and they divide out of control.
Cancerous tumors can spread to other vital tissues and organs.
What are the types of kidney cancer?
Renal cell carcinoma is the most common form of kidney cancer. However, there are different types of kidney cancer, including:
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC):
This type is the most common form of kidney cancer in adults and accounts for 85% of all kidney cancers.
RCC usually develops as a single tumor in one kidney, but it can affect both kidneys.
Renal cell carcinoma develops from the lining of the small tubes that are part of the nephrons within the kidneys.
Transitional cell carcinoma:
Transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 6% to 7% of all kidney cancers.
This cancer usually begins in the area where the ureter connects to the main part of the kidney.
This area is called the renal pelvis. Transitional cell carcinoma can also occur in the ureter or bladder.
This is the least common form of kidney cancer, and accounts for only 1% of kidney cancer cases. It begins in the connective tissues of the kidneys and, if left untreated, can spread to nearby organs and bones.
The most common type of kidney cancer in children. It accounts for about 5% of kidney cancers.
How common is kidney cancer?
Kidney cancer accounts for about 3.7 percent of all cancers.
The risk of kidney cancer increases with age. It is more common in men than in women.
What are the stages of kidney cancer?
The first stage:
The tumor is 7 cm or smaller and is found in only one kidney. Without spreading to lymph nodes or other tissues.
The second phase:
The tumor is larger than 7 cm but is still in only one kidney. It has not yet spread to lymph nodes or other tissues.
The tumor has spread to the major blood vessels — the renal vein and the inferior vena cava — or to tissues surrounding the kidney, or to nearby lymph nodes.
The fourth stage:
The tumor has spread outside the kidney to the adrenal gland (the small gland on top of the kidney), to distant lymph nodes, or to other organs.
Tumors are also classified based on the abnormal shape of the cancer cells. Tumor grades can also tell doctors how fast a tumor is growing and how far it has spread.
Tumors whose cells do not resemble normal cells and divide rapidly are called high-grade tumours.
High-grade tumors tend to grow and spread more quickly than low-grade tumors.
What are the causes of kidney cancer?
The exact cause of kidney cancer is unknown, but several risk factors have been identified.
A risk factor is a characteristic or behavior that increases your chance of developing a disease.
Kidney cancer risk factors include:
- smokingSmokers are more likely to get kidney cancer. In addition, the longer a person smokes, the higher the risk.
- obesityObesity: a risk factor for kidney cancer. In addition, the higher a person's weight, the higher the risk.
- Hypertension: High blood pressure has been associated with an increased risk of kidney cancer.
- family history: People who have family members with kidney cancer may be more likely to develop cancer.
- NSto radiate: Women treated with radiation for cancer of the reproductive organs ( Uterus orCervical) more likely to get kidney cancer.
- Genetic changes (mutations): Changes in certain genes can increase the risk of kidney cancer.
- Long-term hemodialysis treatment: Hemodialysis is the process of cleaning the blood by passing it through a special machine. Dialysis is used when a person's kidneys are not working properly.
- Tuberous sclerosis: Tuberous sclerosis is a disease that causes seizures and mental retardation, as well as the formation of tumors in many different organs.
- Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome (VHL): People with this genetic disorder are more likely to develop kidney cancer. This disorder causes noncancerous tumors in the blood vessels, usually in the eyes and brain.
What are the symptoms of kidney cancer?
Kidney cancer may not cause any symptoms in its early stages.
However, as the tumor grows, symptoms may begin. For this reason, kidney cancer is often not diagnosed until it has begun to spread.
Symptoms of kidney cancer can include:
- Blood in the urine (a condition called hematuria).
- A lump in the kidney area.
- Pain in the flank.
- A general feeling of discomfort.
- Loss of appetite and/or weight.
- Fever .
- The patient may complain of orthopedic pain.
How is kidney cancer diagnosed?
If you have symptoms, your doctor will perform a complete medical examination and physical examination. The doctor may also order some tests that can help with Diagnostics and evaluation of cancer. These tests may include:
A sample of urine is studied to see if it contains blood. Even very small traces of blood, not visible to the naked eye, can be detected in tests of urine samples.
- blood tests:
These tests are done to count the number of each of the different types of blood cells, as well as to check the different electrolytes in your body.
A blood test can show if there are too few red blood cells (anaemia), or if your kidney function is disturbed (in view of creatinine).
- Computerized tomography (CT or CAT):
This is a special X-ray that uses a computer to create a series of pictures, or slices, of the inside of the body.
This test is often done with an intravenous contrast material (diagnostic material). Patients with impaired kidney function may not be able to take this substance.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):
This is a test that produces images of the inside of the body using large magnets, radio waves and a computer and is safe for pregnant women.
This test uses high-frequency sound waves that travel through body tissues to create images that are displayed on a screen.
This test is useful in detecting tumors that have a different density than healthy tissue.
During this procedure, a thin needle is inserted into the tumor, and a small sample of tissue (biopsy) is removed. The doctor will examine the tissue under a microscope to see if there are any cancer cells. Because kidney cancer biopsies aren't always completely reliable, your doctor may not recommend this test.
Most cancers are divided by stage, which is a description of the cancer that helps plan treatment. The stage of the cancer depends on:
- The location and size of the tumor.
- How affected are the lymph nodes.
- The degree to which the cancer has spread, if any, to other tissues and organs.
The doctor uses information from various tests including CT scans, MRIs, and biopsies to determine the stage of the cancer.
How is kidney cancer treated in Turkey?
Treatment depends on the type, stage and grade of the cancer, the patient's age and general health.
Surgery is the most common treatment for kidney cancer. Several surgical options may be considered, including:
- Partial nephrectomy: The surgeon removes only the part of the kidney that contains the tumor.
- Radical nephrectomy: The surgeon removes the entire kidney and some tissue around the kidney. Some lymph nodes in the area may also be removed.
In Turkey, it is now possible to use Robotic surgery for kidney cancer. As it became possible Treatment of tumors with cryo-excision and cryosections.
When one kidney is removed, the remaining kidneys are usually able to do the work of both kidneys. If the tumor affects the kidneys, the patient will need To perform a kidney transplant Hospitals in Turkey are among the most important and The best hospitals in the world for organ transplantation.And today it is run with help robots.
Surgery is the treatment of choice for most stages of kidney cancer. For chemotherapy for kidney cancer, there are several relatively new agents that block blood flow to the tumor and put it in a dormant state. These medications are usually taken orally and are generally well tolerated. The other way is to use medications that activate the body's immune system to fight the tumor.
Can kidney cancer be prevented?
Because the exact cause of kidney cancer is not known, there is no known prevention. However, you may be able to reduce your risk by quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to asbestos and cadmium.
What is the outlook for people with kidney cancer?
The chance of a cure depends on the type and stage of the cancer (whether it's in the kidneys only or has spread to other places in the body). The chance of recovery also depends on the general state of health of the patient.
Like most types of cancer, kidney cancer is more curable if caught in its early stages. In general, if the cancer is caught early, before it has spread beyond the outer covering of the kidney, kidney cancer is often curable.
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