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Treatment of burns and degrees of burns
The treatment of minor superficial burns (or first-degree burns), second-degree burns, and third-degree burns (and in rare cases fourth) is one of the most important topics of concern to people, given that burns are one of the most important daily household skin injuries, which the doctor must know in ways and means. In addition, the treatment of children's burns is a challenge for the doctor.
Because the methods of treatment in treating burns for children differ from those in treating burns in adults, and anyone must be familiar with first aid for burns and learn how to treat burns at home from applying cold water to using ointments (such as MEBO ointment). The burn victim can apply some coolant (such as olive oil, egg white and toothpaste or even an ointment containing honey) to the burn or call an ambulance and refer the burn patient to a burn health care center in the hospital.
Burns are divided into three main classes (types) often, and the degree and severity of burns depend on the severity of the injury according to the penetration of the burn into the layers of the skin. This information and how to deal with it must be known, as the treatment of burns is related to its depth and size. These degrees are:
- first degree: Mild (such as a sunburn), the top outer layer of skin (epidermis) turns red and is often painful at the site of the burn but does not usually ulcerate.
- second grade: Affects the upper and lower layers of the skin (dermis and epidermis), the patient feels more pain and redness in the skin, and blisters and bubbles often form.
- Third degree burns: A third-order burn affects all layers of the skin and layers below the skin, including the fat layer, adjacent tissues, and nerve endings. Burns require intensive medical attention and usually leave permanent scars.
There is a fourth degree burn (which is rare) which causes indescribable pain because the burn reaches the area of the tendons and muscles.
Common causes of burns
There are many causes of burns and they are almost innumerable, and most of these reasons are responsible for light and superficial small burns.
Thermal sources are the most common causes of burns of all kinds. Fire, hot liquids (boiling water), steam and contact with hot surfaces are the most common causes of burns in the world.
There are other, less common causes, but they are often more dangerous and differ in their depth (i.e. the depth is related to the source of the burn, including:
- Chemical causes: caustics, building materials and detergents.
- Radiographic causes: Laser burns (laser hair removal) and sunlight.
- electrical burns;
- some toxins poison.
- Arrhythmia, or heart rhythm disturbances caused by an electrical burn.
- Dehydration if the burn covers large areas of the body.
- A sharp drop in body temperature.
- Breathing problems as a result of inhaling hot air or smoke.
- Scars distorting the shape and greatly affecting the patient's life, and skin adhesions that distort the general shape of the body.
- Uncontrolled muscle spasms, and problems using joints if the skin over them is burned.
- Edema (increased fluid and tissue swelling).
- Failure of some organs in the body, in addition to generalized infections, especially in the lung (pneumonia).
- A dangerous drop in blood pressure may result in shock.
- Severe infections may necessitate amputation of the affected organ, or infection may be transmitted and sepsis may occur.
Pictures of burns of various degrees
First aid for burns and treatment of minor burns at home
The treatment of minor burns (treatment of burns of the first and second degree) is simple compared to the treatment of burns of higher degrees.
A protocol for treating these burns is usually used and this protocol is Easy The nurse or even the companion can apply it and we mention some notes and steps on how we treat minor burns at home:
- First, cool the burn with water by placing the burned area under a stream of moderately cold water (not cold to freezing, as many people mistake) for 10 minutes. .
- Remove rings or other tight objects from the burned area. Try to do this quickly and gently before the area swells.
- The bubbles formed in second-degree burns should not be burst. If this occurs, an antibiotic ointment should be applied to the area for fear of infection, as the blisters (bullae) help protect against infection.
- After the burn has cooled, apply burn ointments as MEBO ointment to treat burns where showed A study The effectiveness of MEBO cream in relieving the symptoms of burns and serious wounds after operations, especially pain, or Avo mep ointment to treat burns (ointment can be applied CineMep Plus For first-degree burns), this helps prevent dehydration and provides relief from pain.
- Put a bandage on the injury site, make sure that the bandage is clean, wrap the bandage loosely to avoid pressure on the burned skin area.
- If necessary (in case of severe pain), the patient can take an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as ibuprofen, naproxen sodium or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others).
- For sunburn, Aloe Vera cream can be applied.
- It is advised not to cool the burns with household materials, honey, eggs, or other materials.
- The use of cotton on burns should be avoided so that it does not stick to the sterile gauze.
Treatment of serious and widespread burns
The treatment of these burns is a complex matter, and the basic treatment is carried out in the hospital by specialized doctors, but those accompanying the injured can relieve complications and symptoms if they act correctly and contribute to the treatment process. We recommend taking the following steps:
An ambulance should be called immediately in the event of serious burns from the dustHeart Third, chemical or electrical burns, even if it seems that the injury is not serious, as the internal injury is severe and the injured will enter serious complications in the absence of prompt treatment and management for the burn.
Make sure that the patient is able to breathe, otherwise start CPR, and remove the patient from the scene of the accident and the cause so that you do not get injured or the patient's condition worsens.
Remove everything that the patient wears in the area of the injury and cover its place with sterile gauze. Try to make the area of injury higher than the level of the heart, and watch the patient for fear of shock until the ambulance arrives.
Occupational surgery and occupational therapy
The self-healing of serious burns often leaves extensive scarring, muscle problems and limited joint movement by scarring and tight skin.
Therefore, doctors resort to plastic surgeries, skin transplants and some other operations to treat the effects of burns following extensive and serious burns that affect the patient's life.
One of these procedures is intubation, which is very important in the event of a facial burn and may save the patient's life, because after the burn, swelling of the respiratory tracts occurs and occurs tracheal stenosis Which blocks it and enters the patient with respiratory distress that may lead to his life.
A feeding tube can also be placed directly into the patient's stomach due to the difficulty of eating due to the presence of edema.
A wide scar can form on the chest, and the doctor will then remove this scar and transplant new skin in its place.
After the patient’s condition is stabilized, we then think about plastic surgery and skin grafts in case there are deformities or significant skin loss.
Follow-up and recovery after treatment
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