Cover image about the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver

Treatment of fibrosis of the liver in Turkey and knowledge of its symptoms and causes

Treatment of fibrosis of the liver is crucial in the life of the patient, otherwise the liver disease will worsen and the fibrosis will turn into cirrhosis and then death. There are many causes of fibrosis of the liver and the treatment is according to this reason.

Liver fibrosis Treatment (Intro)

The liver is one of the most important organs in the human body, and life without a liver is impossible because of the multitasking it accomplishes in and outside the digestive system, which in our modern time requires a huge chemical laboratory to perform.

To understand the mechanism of fibrosis of the liver, we must first know its functions and how it works. Anatomically, the human liver consists of large right lobe and a small left lobe, between them the falciform ligament.

Schematic diagram showing the location of the liver in the abdomen
The location of the liver in the abdomen and its parts in pictures

Histological structure of the liver

Histologically, the liver consists of a large percentage of hepatocytes, in addition to other cells that multitask each. These cells gather together to form the hepatic unit of hexagonal shape.

In the center of the hepatic unit is the central vein, and in each corner of the hexagon is the triad of portals (artery, vein, and bile duct). The hepatic units meet together to form the lobes of the liver.

The blood moves from the triad towards the hepatic vein, passing through the hepatocytes. The bile flows in a direction opposite to the blood to empty into the gallbladder, and through this system the liver works, so any obstruction of this system will disrupt the work of the liver and thus we head towards liver failure.

An image showing the microstructure of the hepatic units
collection of hepatic units

Pathogenesis of hepatic injury

There are many causes of hepatic failure, but all these causes agree that hepatocytes die or the hexagonal shape is damaged and destroyed in the hepatic units. Therefore, scar tissue that contains only fibers (without cells) occurs in the place of this damage, resulting in resistance to the flow of blood in addition to the lack of purification of toxins.

As a result, fibrosis of the liver occurs, which worsens over time, causing cirrhosis of the liver and thus liver failure, which is the final stage of liver disease where the patient eventually develops many complications that lead to his death.

Stages of liver damage

Liver fibrosis or cirrhosis does not happen overnight. Rather, it is a cumulative damage for many years that led to the patient's current condition. A small area of the liver damage does not cause disease, and the patient may not show any symptoms even if 30% remains from the liver function only.

Liver damage has four stages: inflammation (steatosis), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and insufficiency.

Liver steatosis (with inflammation)

It is a condition in which fat accumulates in the liver cells, causing inflammation, which is the first and previous stage of fibrosis. This damage is reversible, meaning the liver can be healed if appropriate treatment is received.

Liver Fibrosis

Because of the inflammation, some liver cells die and are replaced by scar tissue. These scar tissues form fibers that clump together, making up for the spaces where the injury occurred, leaving traces of scar tissue that doctors rely on for diagnosis.

With the accumulation of fibers and a lot of scar tissue, the liver gradually loses its function, treatment of fibrosis is possible and the damage can be stopped or reversed (treatment of fibrosis in this case is very necessary).

Liver cirrhosis

It is the stage after cirrhosis of the liver, the damage is not reversible and there is no cure for cirrhosis, the loss of liver function is significant and the symptoms are clear to the patient such as general fatigue, the patient here is at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (Liver Cancer).

Chronic liver failure

The last stage of liver disease, the complete failure of the liver function due to the destruction of the entire liver tissue, and the patient's condition is very bad, the only treatment is Liver transplant From a living donor, otherwise the patient may live only a few hours due to the accumulation of toxins in the body that cause the injury in the brain.

A picture showing the stages of liver damage that require treatment for cirrhosis
Stages of liver damage that require treatment for fibrosis

Causes of fibrosis of the liver

The causes of fibrosis of the liver vary, and the treatment of fibrosis of the liver varies according to the cause. These causes range from toxins, infections, and metabolic disorders in the body. Some of them may also be hereditary, and autoimmunity sometimes plays a role. These causes include:

Hepatitis: Both types (B and C) are one of the most common causes, as they are transmitted through sex or through close contact with the blood of an infected person or the use of his toothbrush or razor blade.

There is a vaccine to prevent hepatitis B given to health workers who come into direct contact with patients' blood, while hepatitis C virus has no vaccine to date.

alcoholism: Drinking large amounts of alcohol for several years causes permanent damage to the liver that leads to fibrosis and eventually liver failure, which is the most common cause of cirrhosis in the West.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): It is a condition of liver damage without alcoholism. These cases occur in people due to high blood fats due to obesity or diabetes.

Biliary obstruction: Inflammation and obstruction of the biliary tract leads to severe liver damage and fibrosis of the liver due to the accumulation of bile in it, the cause may be stones from the gallbladder that are inflamed. Cholecystectomy.

Autoimmune hepatitis: It is the presence of antibodies made by the human body against hepatocytes because of specific defect in the immune system, which leads to the destruction of the liver, and the treatment here is with immunosuppressants.

Genetic diseases and metabolic disorders: As the deficiency of some enzymes in the liver leads to the accumulation of substances in the liver, causing scarring and fibrosis of the liver, the most famous of which are the accumulation of iron in the liver, Wilson's disease (copper accumulation) and antitrypsin enzyme deficiency, which affects the functioning of the liver.

Hepatotoxic drugs: The use of some hepatotoxic drugs in the treatment of diseases for a long time may lead to severe damage to the liver and cause fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. These drugs include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen), augmentin and ketoconazole.

Fibrosis symptoms

Symptoms vary according to the severity of the liver damage. At first, the disease is asymptomatic and the liver can function very efficiently despite the damage it has suffered due to its ability to compensate.

With the progression of fibrosis of the liver, symptoms begin to appear and then gradually worsen until the compensation of the liver is broken and it enters a state of failure, and then the patient dies. These symptoms include:

  • general fatigue
  • Anorexia
  • nausea
  • cluttered mind
  • Weight loss and muscle weakness

If the patient's condition deteriorates further, the following symptoms of cirrhosis appear:

  • Jaundice (yellow coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes)
  • Ascites
  • Generalized edema of the extremities
  • Itchy skin
  • Ease of bleeding
  • Hematemesis (may be life-threatening due to bleeding esophageal varices)
  • loss of sexual desire
  • Neurological symptoms due to encephalopathy

Liver fibrosis treatment in Turkey

Since fibrosis of the liver is a reversible damage, the treatment of fibrosis limits the liver damage and the development of the disease and is by treating the cause that led to the occurrence of fibrosis, so to treat fibrosis we will use one of the following treatment methods:

Antiviral drugs

Medicines to treat hepatitis B and C if one or both of them were detected early before the stage of cirrhosis of the liver, and these drugs include gamma interferon (vaccinating to prevent hepatitis is necessary for health workers).

Alcohol addiction treatment

The treatment of addiction to alcohol consumption in order to reduce the development of fibrosis of the liver is through drug compounds that treat addiction in addition to the use of alcohol-repelling substances that make even the smell of alcohol unbearable for the patient.

Treatment for high blood lipids

The cause of high lipids and cholesterol in the blood is an unbalanced diet. Diabetes also causes pathological increases in blood fats, which leads to fibrosis of the liver.

Treatment of cirrhosis of the liver here includes weight control through exercise and healthy food. Controlling blood sugar levels is also necessary for patients with diabetes to control this disease, the patient may need Obesity process in Turkey To reduce his level of fat (we treat the causes to prevent fibrosis of the liver).

Treatment through liver transplantation in Turkey

It is a treatment for advanced liver fibrosis . If the patient has reached the stage of cirrhosis and has not had fibrosis previously treated, he will have to undergo an operation. Liver transplant in TurkeyIt is one of the most common organ transplants.

Requires treatment in a liver transplant Part of the donor's liver And not his entire liver. The rest of his liver will replace the part that was taken. Also, in the transplant patient, the part of the liver that was transplanted to him will also grow in a compensatory way to suffice his need (which is the advantage of the liver over the rest of the body’s organs).

Contact us If you want to treat cirrhosis of the liver in Turkey, doctors will guide you Bimaristan Medical Center To receive the most appropriate treatment method for your condition in order to live a normal, happy life with more health.


Sources:

  1. NHS
  2. healthline
  3. RadiologyInfo

Common Questions

If fibrosis is treated early, this prevents the disease from progressing and may also regress, so the most important thing in fibrosis is early detection in the early stages of the causative disease and early treatment for this cause, if treatment is not done early, the patient may enter liver failure.

Liver fibrosis is dangerous if early treatment is not done and symptoms appear due to its transformation to cirrhosis or the development of complications of fibrosis such as bleeding esophageal varices or hepatic encephalopathy when entering into liver failure (brain poisoning occurs because toxins are not removed by the liver).

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