Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the large intestine, causing symptoms that affect quality of life. Ulcerative colitis is managed and treated in Turkey.
The colon extends from the end of the cecum to the beginning of the rectum, with a length of about 150 cm.
The main function of the colon is to absorb water and salts from undigested foods and turn the rest into waste (faeces) to be excreted out of the body through the anus.
The colon is divided anatomically into four sections:
- ascending colon
- Transverse colon
- descending colon
- sigmoid colon
What is ulcerative colitis?
Inflammation is limited to the large intestine, unlike Crohn's disease, which causes inflammation and ulcers along the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus.
The disease may progress to serious, life-threatening complications that require urgent surgical intervention.
Causes of ulcerative colitis
The main cause of ulcerative colitis is not fully understood, but hypotheses have been made about the possible causes and factors that lead to the occurrence of the disease and exacerbate its symptoms:
This hypothesis explains the cause of ulcerative colitis to a genetic defect in the work of immune cells, where the immune cells attack the bacteria that live normally in the colon, causing frequent infections and ulcers.
In fact, having a family history of the disease increases the risk of infection in relatives, as it has been found that about 10 to 25% of people with ulcerative colitis have a relative who has either ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease.
environmental factorsSome studies have linked environmental factors to an increased risk of ulcerative colitis, as the probability of infection is higher for urban residents than for rural residents, which can be caused by air pollution in cities and a diet rich in fats and harmful substances.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS): Some studies have found that up to one-third of patients with ulcerative colitis have a worsening of their symptoms when using these medications.
psychological factors. May play a role in the development of the disease and exacerbation of symptoms, according to Studies In 2015, 82% patients with ulcerative colitis had psychiatric problems, and these problems were often diagnosed before ulcerative colitis was diagnosed.
Tobacco Consumption: Some studies have found that smokers are less likely to contract the disease (this does not mean that we advise the patient to smoke for prevention, as smoking is associated with countless other medical problems).
Symptoms of ulcerative colitis
- haematemesis (blood in the stool)
- Diarrhea may be severe
- lower abdominal pain
- Nausea and tiredness
- Over time, weight loss may occur
- Mucus or pus in stool
- Fever and rash
- Pain at the level of the joints
- severe abdominal pain
- electrolyte disturbance
Diagnosis of ulcerative colitis in Turkey
And by endoscopy, a biopsy can be taken from the colon to be examined in the laboratory under a microscope and to check for pathological changes, where several biopsies must be taken to investigate and confirm the infection.
Colonoscopy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing ulcerative colitis.
Ulcerative colitis treatment methods in Turkey
In cases with mild symptoms, ulcerative colitis is treated using medications that reduce inflammation in the large intestine, including:
The most famous drugs used in this group are sulfasinil and mesalamine, where mesalamine is given in the form of a rectal suppository.
In the absence of response to the previous treatment or in cases with more severe symptoms, steroids are resorted to that inhibit the inflammatory reactions that occur, the most common steroid used is prednisone, and a doctor should be consulted when taking steroids, as they may cause complications that may be dangerous if the drug is suddenly withdrawn or excessive The dose.
In cases of severe ulcerative colitis that have not responded to previous treatments, biologic drugs that have proven effective, such as infliximab, are given, as this drug suppresses the tumor suppressor factor TNF and thus weakens the inflammatory response in the body as a whole.
This medicine is taken in specific doses, as it may increase the risk of infection, especially in those with weak immunity.
Colectomy with ileostomy j-pouch procedure
This procedure is carried out in several stages, that is, the patient needs two or three operations, according to the patient’s health condition.
The goal of an ileostomy is to allow the pouch to sit well until the outer pouch is removed and the new pouch (j pouch) takes over its function and the role of the removed colon.
About 8 to 12 weeks after the first operation, the inner pouch (j pouch) is ready to perform its function. With this operation, the ileostomy is closed and the outer pouch is removed so that the patient is able to excrete waste through the new pouch that connects the small intestine with the anus.
Resection of the colon, rectum and anus with final ileostomy
In this type of operation, an external bag is worn for the rest of the patient's life. The bag is changed from time to time according to the doctor's instructions. Of course, this method is more difficult for the patient than the first surgery that does not need an external bag.
Preparation before surgery
You must refrain from eating and drinking before the operation for hours or for a whole day, according to the doctor’s instructions.
After Rectal Prolapse surgery
After the operation, the patient is placed on a diet containing soft foods, foods that cause gas should be avoided, and the patient is advised to drink plenty of water.
The body needs a while to get used to the changes taking place. In the beginning, after the installation of the cyst, the new cyst does not give the same function as the colon removed, but rather needs time to take the appropriate shape and size.
The number of defecations is about 8 times a day after several months of the operation and varies from person to person and the consistency of stool is closer to watery.
Why choose Turkey for treatment?
Recently, Turkey has become one of the leading countries in the field of medical tourism in the world, due to the provision of appropriate treatment with advanced centers and at a low cost.