Gynecomastia, Causes and Treatment in 2023

Gynecomastia is an enlargement of the breast due to the accumulation of fat in it، and Gynecomastia treatment Has witnessed significant development in Turkey, especially in gynecomastia surgery, at the hands of the most skilled doctors in Turkey.

Gynecomastia in men is an important problem for them, as the shape of the breast after the enlargement of the breast gland and its increase in size makes it similar to the breast in women, which is an embarrassing matter and may cause psychological problems in most men. It also affects their lives, especially in the stage of puberty. A defect in the hormones estrogen and testosterone disrupts the balance of hormones in the body.

Usually, Gynecomastia carries with it the risk of transforming the benign enlargement of the breast tissue into a malignant mass, and the body's turbulent hormones can affect the reproductive and sexual health of men, so what are the causes of gynecomastia in men? and How to get rid of gynecomastia in men? Does gynecomastia in men cause infertility? What is the meaning of gynecomastia? Get to know more in this article.

What is Gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia is a fairly common condition, an increase in the fat tissue in the breast in men. It may be present in all ages. Still, it is common in adolescent males who go through a hormonal change in the body and older men (there can be enlarged breasts or gynecomastia in boys or newborns).

Also, breast tissue can grow unevenly on one side than the other, so the patient has an enlarged breast and an abnormal breast shape, or in most cases, the enlargement is equal in both sides.

Gynecomastia is the most common breast disorder in men, affecting between 50 to 65% of men and boys worldwide.

Gynecomastia usually results from an imbalance between the level of the male hormone (testosterone) and the estrogen hormone, where an increase in the estrogen hormone occurs and a decrease in the testosterone hormone occurs. This imbalance in the hormones may be of unknown cause; it can be the result of many other reasons As a side effect of some medications, diseases, and even foods.

Enlarged breast tissue for men is usually a benign condition, and there are several treatment methods to treat this problem, either surgically or without surgery; where various modern techniques remove the excess fat in the patient’s breast tissue, and the latest treatments have included either surgery (liposuction, or the removal of extra fatty tissue in the breast…) or with medications to treat gynecomastia, as the effectiveness and success rate of treatment in Turkey has increased significantly in recent times.


Causes of Gynecomastia

The causes of gynecomastia may not be fully known, but we can say that some factors contribute to the abnormal growth of mammary gland tissue, including:

  • Taking some medications: such as antidepressants, antipsychotics (haloperidol), and anti-inflammatory drugs, in addition to the drugs used in treating Prostate cancer.
  • Breast enlargement in men may be a consequence of illegal drugs such as heroin and marijuana.
  • Alcohol abuse.
  • liver problems such asLiver Cancer and cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Gynecomastia may result from other severe diseases in the body, such as: Lung Cancer and some heart and kidney diseases, in addition to testicular and prostate cancer.
  • Obesity sometimes affects the sebaceous glands and increases the size of the pseudo-breast in men (or what is called “pseudo gynecomastia” in the case of overweight).
  • Malfunction of the thyroid gland and its hormones.
  • Tumors of the endocrine glands that secrete sexual or metabolic hormones.
  • Some congenital problems (birth problems such as Klinefelter syndrome).
  • HavingBreast canceralthough it is rare in men, the condition is hazardous and requires a doctor to conduct many tests to rule out malignant tendencies.

It should be noted that heavy-weight lifters who use androgens to increase their muscle mass are at risk of a change in the levels of testosterone and estrogen hormones and an increase in the size of their breasts (or what's called Gynecomastia).

A picture of the five most common causes of gynecomastia

Symptoms of Gynecomastia

Gynecomastia may manifest as an enlargement of the fatty glandular tissue below the nipple in one or both breasts. This enlargement may be severe and increase asymmetrically over time.
Sagging and enlarged breasts in men are among the conditions that make a man suffer from psychological problems and an embarrassing appearance.

The occurrence of breast pain or discharge from the nipple, known as the term “nipple oozing,” increases the severity of the condition and calls for a quick doctor’s consultation.

A man may notice other accompanying symptoms related to the condition causing this breast enlargement (Gynecomastia).

Also, the symptoms of gynecomastia in men differ from the symptoms of breast cancer in them, which is usually on one side only and not always around the nipple, and it has a hard and rough texture.

Diagnosing Gynecomastia

Diagnosing gynecomastia in men requires the doctor to take a complete clinical history of the patient. This helps to know whether the patient has a family history of breast cancer and to find its causes to treat it in the best ways possible.

The doctor begins by conducting blood tests that show the functions of the liver and the levels of hormones in the body. A urine test is also performed for the patient, and additional investigations to rule out cancer, such as mammograms or echocardiography. The case may require resorting to a biopsy of the enlarged breast.

Multislice computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis or to look for other comorbid conditions.
In some cases, the patient must see an Endocrinologist when his problem is systemic, and he has many accompanying symptoms.

Degrees of Gynecomastia

An Image showing the degrees of gynecomastia
The degrees of gynecomastia in men differ according to the descent of the breast tissue below the horizontal line and the increase in the size of the breast tissue.

Can Gynecomastia cause infertility?

As we noted previously, gynecomastia has several causes, and many of these causes may affect men's ability to conceive.

Infertility or sexual impotence is often due to an imbalance of hormones in men.

However, it has been proven in a recent A study that Gynecomastia is one of the rare cases seen in patients with impotence.

Read also on our website: The best ways to treat male infertility.

Treatment of Gynecomastia without surgery

Not all methods of treating gynecomastia in men are surgical (it may be without surgery or other procedures). The treatment depends on the patient’s condition, as some cases do not require treatment, but if gynecomastia is caused by medication, avoiding these drugs achieves good results, and treating diseases that cause gynecomastia has also made remarkable progress in the treatment of gynecomastia.

Also, getting rid of obesity, exercising, and following a healthy diet are safe methods that improve the shape of the patient’s chest, but not in all cases.

Men's gynecomastia often goes away naturally, and the breast size returns to normal after about six months to a year. They do not need an operation to remove breast tissue.

In the event that gynecomastia is caused by a hormonal change and the effect of estrogen on the breasts, giving tamoxifen can reduce breast enlargement (gynecomastia) and the increase of the size of the breasts in men.

And if gynecomastia is caused by a metabolic problem or a certain disease, then treating this condition helps to reduce gynecomastia (Reducing breast size in men).

A picture of the five most important exercises to get rid of gynecomastia
These exercises help greatly to get rid of gynecomastia in the case of pseudo-gynecomastia

Treatment of male gynecomastia with androgen injections

Injections of androgens (testosterone in particular) can help stop breast enlargement and gynecomastia if the cause of gynecomastia is an imbalance in male hormones.

However, if male gynecomastia reaches the stage of fibrous gynecomastia, treatment using the male hormone is often not beneficial.

A A study recently conducted has documented that injecting androgens under the skin gave promising results in this field, and it is better than intramuscular injections. As we mentioned earlier, intramuscular injection of androgens increases the proportion of female estrogens, exacerbating the problem.

Read also on our website: The 7 best ways to treat gynecomastia in men with herbs.

Gynecomastia Surgery

Doctors often do not resort to surgery unless there is a very abnormal shape of the breast in men, or breast enlargement (increased breast size) in a way that cannot be modified without surgery.

We advise not to perform gynecomastia surgery unless absolutely necessary, and to go for treatment naturally.

Finally, Gynecomastia is one of the problems that can be treated naturally, and most men have a mild degree of Gynecomastia that does not affect their everyday lives. Still, attention must be paid to the accompanying problems and the balance of hormones in the man’s body to live a happy reproductive, sexual and healthy life.


  1. HealthDirect
  2. Johns Hopkins Medicine
  3. healthy male
  4. HealthUniversity of Utah

Frequently Asked Questions

There are several ways to get rid of gynecomastia (breast enlargement); where you should stop taking medications that are suspected of causing gynecomastia, you should also exercise, and avoid a sedentary lifestyle, and if you are obese, you should follow a diet to get rid of body fat (enlarged breasts may be Pseudo-enlargement, which is then called pseudo-gynecomastia.

In most cases, gynecomastia disappears on its own after about a year or two following the doctor's instructions.

The cause of male gynecomastia is not clearly known, and it may be attributed to many causes or risk factors, including smoking, alcoholism, obesity, and the use of drugs that affect hormonal activity in the body, or it could even be physiological at puberty or after the age of fifty.

It means breast enlargement in men due to hormonal imbalances in their bodies.

Usually, we do not find gynecomastia associated with infertility. The enlargement of breast tissue (gynecomastia) is often associated with an imbalance in testosterone and estrogens (for a specific reason or syndrome), leading to sexual impotence or even infertility.

The patient must stop smoking and alcohol if he abuses them. Suppose he has pseudo-gynecomastia (the breast is enlarged due to increased fatty tissue, nothing more). In that case, he must constantly exercise, especially the bench press and Swedish exercises.

In the case of physiological gynecomastia, it will disappear on its own after a year or two. If it is pathological or caused by medication, the pathological condition must be treated, or the drug that caused the hormonal imbalance in the body must be stopped.

There are several classifications of types and degrees of gynecomastia. Still, we mention one of them, where there are three types of gynecomastia in men, florid, fibrous, and intermediate gynecomastia. The kind seen in the patient is usually related to the length of time since the condition was formed.
Florid gynecomastia usually appears in the condition's early stages (four months or less). This type is characterized by increased ductal tissue and blood vessels, fibrous gynecomastia is usually seen after a year of infection, and more fibrosis and few ducts are observed. Intermediate gynecomastia is a type that is believed to appear during the transformation of florid gynecomastia into fibrous gynecomastia.

In the event that surgical intervention is required due to the presence of an underlying disease or breast cancer (or a very abnormal form), the cost of treatment in Turkey ranges between 1,500 to 2,000 euros.

If you are planning for treatment in Turkey
you can talk to us here.

If you are planning for treatment in Turkey
you can talk to us here.